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高一英语动词的过去分词知识点

来源:101教育网整理 2017-10-09 字体大小: 分享到:

  高一英语动词的过去分词知识点(一)

  过去分词的用法也有两个特点:一是表示完成,二是表示被动。

  实意动词过去分词变化规律和他的过去式变化规律几乎是一样的:

  ①一般情况直接加ed,如ask—asked,work—worked

  ②以不发音的e结尾,只加d,如love—loved,dance—danced

  ③以辅音字母加y结尾,把y变为ied,如try—tried,study—studied

  ④以一个元音字母和一个辅音结尾的重读音节结尾的动词,先双写末尾一个字母,再加ed,

  如stop—stopped,permit—permitted

  注意:以l结尾的动词,尾音节重读时,双写l,如control—controlled,尾音节不重读时,双不双写都可以,如travel—traveled/traveled。

  特例:picnic—picnicked,另外还有很多动词的过去分词是不合乎上述规则的,需熟记。

  实意动词过去式与过去分词的区别:

  过去式是发生过的事;

  过去分词形式是发生了并且对现在造成影响的事。

  过去式是用来作谓语的

  过去分词用于完成时结构的谓语。

  另外,在两者的形式也有所差异,有的过去式和过去分词一样,有的不一样.

  比如:

  begin began begun就不一样

  teach taught taught就一样

  用的时候一定要分清

  过去分词结构:

  1.过去分词独立结构

  过去分词有时可有其独立主语,二者构成一种独立分词结构。过去分词独立结构多用于书面语中,常用作状语,用来表示时间、条件、原因、伴随情况等。如:

  He rushed into the room,his face covered with sweat.

  他满脸是汗跑进屋来。(表伴随)

  This done,we went home.

  做完此事,我们就回家了。(表时间)

  All our savings gone,the couple started looking for jobs.

  积蓄全部用完了,这对夫妻就开始找工作。(表原因)

  That point settled,the speaker went on to the next one.

  那个问题讲完了,演讲人继续讲下一个问题。(表时间)

  2.with/without+宾语+过去分词表示伴随情况的独立结构

  With everything taken into consideration,we all think this is a very good plan.

  每件事都考虑到了,我们都认为这是一项不错的计划。

  With different methods used,different results are obtained.

  采用不同的方法,得到不同的结果。

  She went angrily away without a word spoken.

  她一个字也没说,就生气地走了。

  3.过去分词(短语)作宾语补足语

  (1)过去分词(短语)在感官动词和使役动词等之后作宾语补足语,这些词语有:have让,使keep使处于某状态get使得

  see看见hear听见find发现

  feel感觉到leave使处于某状态make使

  want想要start引起notice注意

  observe观察watch注视set使处于某状态

  如:

  The work left him exhausted.

  这个活使得他筋疲力尽。

  The doorkeeper heard the chain and bolts withdrawn.

  看门人听见门上的链和拴被拉开了。

  The tenant found the house renovated.

  房客看到房子已整修过了。

  It’s better to leave some things unsaid.

  有些事倒是不说的好。

  I don’t want my name linked with him.

  我不要把我的名字和他联系在一起。

  The person concerned should like this matter settled immediately.

  当事人希望此事立刻得到解决。

  (2)过去分词(短语)在使役动词get或have之后作宾语补足语,表示的动作往往是由别人完成的。如:

  I had my car repaired

  我把我的车修好了。(别人修的)

  I had my hair cut

  我理发了。(别人给我理的)

  We must get the television set repaired

  我们必须把电视机修好。(被别人修)

  He had his window broken to pieces.

  他的窗户给打破了。(被他人打破)

  初中英语不规则动词过去式、过去分词表:

  (1)AAA型(动词原形、过去式、过去分词同形)

  cost(花费)costcost

  cut(割)cut cut

  spit spit/spat spit/spat(英)

  hit(打)hit hit

  hurt伤害)hurthurt

  let(让)let let

  put(放)put put

  read(读)read read

  (2)AAB型(动词原形与过去式同形)

  beat(跳动)beat beaten

  (3)ABA型(动词原形与过去分词同形)

  become(变成)became become

  awake awoke awoken

  come(来)came come

  run(跑)ran run

  (4)ABB型(过去式与过去分词同形)

  dig(挖)dug dug build built built

  get(得到)got got/gotten catch caught caught

  hang(吊死)hanged hanged deal dealt dealt

  hang(悬挂)hung hung feed fed fed

  hold(抓住)held held find found found

  shine(照耀)shone shone sit(坐)sat sat

  pay paid paid win(赢)won won

  send sent sent meet(遇见)met met

  shoot shot shot keep(保持)kept kept

  tell told told sleep(睡)slept slept

  win won won sweep(扫)swept swept

  feel(感觉)felt felt smell(闻)smelt/smelled smelt/smelled

  leave(离开)left left build(建设)built built

  lend(借出)lent lent send(传送)sent sent

  spend(花费)spent spent lose(丢失)lost lost

  burn(燃烧)burnt burnt learn(学习)learnt learnt

  mean(意思是)meant meant catch(抓住)caught caught

  teach(教)taught taught bring(带来)brought brought

  fight(战斗)fought fought buy(买)bought bought

  think(想)thought thought hear(听见)heard heard

  sell(卖)sold sold tell(告诉)told told

  say(说)said said find(找到)found found

  have/has(有)had had make(制造)made made

  stand(站)stood stood understand明白understood understood

  (5)ABC型(动词原形、过去式与过去分词三者不同形)

  begin(开始)began begun take(取)took taken

  drink(喝)drank drunk mistake(弄错)mistook mistaken

  ring(铃响)rang rung ride(骑)rode ridden

  sing(唱)sang sung do(做)did done

  swim(游泳)swam swum write(写)wrote written

  blow(吹)blew blown go(去)went gone

  draw(画)drew drawn lie(平躺)lay lain

  fly(飞)flew flown see(看见)saw seen

  grow(生长)grew grown wear(穿)wore worn

  know(知道)knew known be(am,is,are)(是)was,were been

  throw(投掷)threw thrown show(出示)showed shown

  break(打破)broke broken choose(选择)chose chosen

  forget(忘记)forgot forgotten(forgot)bear bore borne/born

  speak(说,讲)spoke spoken draw drew drawn

  wake(醒)woke woken dream dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed

  drive(驾驶)drove driven hide hid hidden

  eat(吃)ate eaten lay laid laid放置

  fall(落下)fell fallen lie lied lied撒谎

  give(给)gave given lie lay lain躺

  rise(升高)rose risen see saw seen

  shake shook shaken steal stole stolen

  can----could may---might will---would shall---should

  must----must

  高一英语动词的过去分词知识点(二)

  动词的-ed形式的用法

  动词的-ed形式在句中主要起形容词和副词的作用,可以作定语、表语、状语和补语。

  (一)动词的-ed形式作表语

  1、-ed形式在连系动词后作表语,说明主语的状态。

  The students are fully prepared.

  学生们已做好了充分的准备。

  【比较】要把-ed形式作表语和被动语态区别开来。作表语的-ed形式表示状态,被动语态中的-ed形式表示被动动作。

  All the doors are locked.

  所有的门都是锁着的。(-ed形式作表语,表示状态)

  All the doors were locked by the guard.

  所有的门都被卫兵锁上了。(被动语态,表示动作)

  Peter the Great is buried here.

  彼得大帝就埋葬在这里。(-ed形式作表语,表示状态

  Peter the Great was buried here in 1725.

  彼得大帝于1725年被埋葬在这里。(被动语态,表示动作)

  (二)同一动词的-ed形式与-ing形式作表语时的区别

  动词的-ed形式作表语,主要表示主语的心理感觉或所处的状态,含有被动的意思,而-ing形式作表语多表示主语具有的特征,含有主动的意思。

  They were frightened to hear the frighteningsound.

  他们听到那可怕的声音很害怕。

  At the sight of the moving scene,all thepeople present were moved.

  看到这么动人的情景,所有在场的人都感动了。

  【提示】上述动词的-ed形式,有的(如pleased,tired,excited,disappointed等)已经变成形容词,可以被very,too等副词修饰。有的(如amused,puzzled,relaxed等)还不能被very,too修饰,只能被much修饰。

  These problems are very puzzling.

  这些问题很令人迷惑。

  We are much puzzled by his failure toreply.

  他不给我们回信使我们百思不得其解。

  His speech was very moving.

  他的演讲非常感人。

  All the people present were moved to tears.

  在场的所有人都被感动得流泪了。

  (三)动词的-ed形式作宾语补足语

  当作宾语补足语的动词和前面的宾语之间是被动关系时,一般应用动词的-ed形式作宾语的补足语。

  1、在感觉动词see,hear,feel,notice,watch,find后作宾语补足语。

  I heard the Ninth Symphony played last night.

  昨晚我听了第九交响乐的演奏。

  We found all the rivers seriously polluted.

  我们发现所有的河流都被严重污染了。

  Yesterday I noticed a little girl caught stealing in the shop.

  昨天我在商店里注意到一个小女孩偷东西被抓住了。

  He felt his collar pulled by someone from behind.

  他感觉到衣领被人从后面拉了一下。

  2、在使役动词get,have,make,leave,keep等后作宾语补足语。

  (1)动词的-ed形式作get的宾语补足语。

  Doris got her bad tooth pulled out in the hospital.

  多丽丝在医院把坏牙拔了。

  I'll just get these dishes washed and then I'll come.

  我得先把盘子洗了,然后就来。

  【比较】动词get后也可接动词不定式或动词的-ing形式作宾语补足语,和宾语是主动关系。

  He got his sister to help him with his clothes.

  他让姐姐帮他洗衣服。

  It is not hard to get him talking;the problem is stopping him!让他说话不难,难的是说开了止不住他。

  Can you really get that old clock going again?

  你真的能让那辆旧钟再走起来吗?

  (2)动词的-ed形式作make的宾语补足语。

  He raised his voice in order to make himself heard.

  他提高了嗓门为了使别人听清他的讲话。

  You should make your views known to thepublic.

  你应该让公众知道你的观点。

  【注意】动词make后的宾语补足语可用不带to的动词不定式或动词的-ed形式,但不可用动词的-ing形式。

  (误)Can you make the students understanding the text?

  (正)Can you make the students understand thetext?

  (正)Can you make the text understood by the students?

  你能让学生理解这篇课文吗?

  (3)动词的-ed形式作keep或leave的宾语补足语。

  They all went home,leaving all the workundone.

  所有的工作都没完成,他们就回家了。

  The detective and his assistant kept themselves locked in the room all night.侦探和他的助手把自己整夜反锁在房间里。

  3、动词的-ed形式也可用在with(without)结构中,作介词的宾语补足语。

  With everything well arranged,he left theoffice.

  一切都安排妥善之后,他离开了办公室。

  She has come back with her backpack filled with interesting picture-books.

  她已经回来了,背包里塞满了有趣的图书。

  Without any grain left in the house,thelittle girl had to go begging.

  家里没有粮食,小女孩只好出去讨饭。

  Without any more time given,we couldn't finish the task in three weeks.

  如果不再给我们任何时间的话,我们三星期之内完成不了任务。

  4、某些动词后(如want,need,prefer,would like等),作宾语补足语的不定式被动形式省略“to be”,就成了-ed形式作宾语补足语。

  I would like this matter(to be)settled immediately.

  我希望这事立即得到解决。

  I'd prefer this book translated by my sister.

  我情愿让我妹妹来翻译这本书。

  We need the work(to be)finished by Saturday.

  我们需要这项工作周六之前完成。

  The peasants don't want good farmland(to be)built on.

  农民们不想让好好的农田被用来建造房子。

  (四)动词的-ed形式作定语

  动词的-ed形式作定语修饰名词分为前置和后置两类。

  1、前置定语

  单个的动词的-ed形式作定语一般放在被修饰的名词之前,作前置定语。

  A watched pot never boils.

  心急锅不开。

  All the broken doors and windows have been repaired.

  所有的坏门窗都修好了。

  When we arrived,we each were given a printed question paper.

  我们到达的时候,每人被发给了一份印制好的试卷。

  【提示】如要表示强调,单个动词-ed形式也可作后置定语。

  Money spent is more than money earned.

  入不敷出。

  2、后置定语

  作后置定语的-ed形式一般都带有修饰语或其他成分,在语法上相当于一个定语从句。

  We have read many novels written by this author.

  我们读过这个作家写的许多小说。

  (=that are written by this author)

  Half of the honoured guests invited to the reception were foreign ambassadors.

  被邀请到招待会上的贵宾有一半都是外国大使。

  (=who had been invitedto the reception)

  The meeting,attended by one thousand students,was a success.

  这次会议获得很大的成功,共有一千名学生出席了。

  (=which was attended by one thousand students)

  A woman,dressed like a lawyer,came in and took her seat as judge.

  一个律师装扮的女人走了进来,并作为法官就座。

  (=who was dressed like a lawyer)

  3、动词的-ed形式作定语和-ing形式作定语的区别

  动词的-ed形式作定语表示动作已完成或和被动,而-ing形式作定语表示动作正在进行或和主动。

  the risen sun升起了的太阳

  the rising sun正在升起的太阳

  boiled water开水

  boiling water正沸腾的水

  developed countries发达国家

  developing countries发展中国家

  fallen leaves落叶

  falling leaves正在飘落的叶子

  changed condition改变了的情况

  changing condition变化着的情况

  (五)动词的-ed形式作状语和-ing形式作状语一样,也可以表示时间、原因、条件、让步、方式或伴随情况等

  1、表示时间

  动词的-ed形式作状语表示时间,相当于一个时间状语从句。

  Seen from the tower,the city looksbeautiful.

  从塔上往下看,城市显得很美丽。

  (=When the city is seen from the tower...)

  Shown the lab,we were taken to see thelibrary.

  带我们参观了实验室之后,又带我们参观了图书馆。

  (=After we had been shown the lab...)

  Completely examined by the doctors,he went back to school right away.

  经过医生彻底检查以后,他立刻回到了学校。

  (=After he was completely examined...)

  【提示】有时动词的-ed形式前可加连词when或while来强调时间概念。

  When asked why she was late for class again,she hung her head in shame.

  当被问到为什么上课又迟到时,她羞愧地低下了头。

  Once recovered,he went all out to do hiswork.

  一恢复健康,他就全力以赴地干起了工作。

  Once started,the clock will go half a month and keep good time.

  一旦给这钟上了发条,它就会走半个月,并且走得很准。

  2、表示原因

  动词的-ed形式作状语表示原因,相当于一个原因状语从句。

  Moved by the heroic deeds,the childrencouldn't help crying.

  孩子们被英雄事迹感动,情不自禁地哭了起来。

  (=Since they were moved by the heroic deeds...)

  Written in haste,her letter is very hard toread.

  因为写得快,她的信很难阅读。(=As it was written in haste...)

  Excited by the new discovery,we decided to go out and celebrate.

  我们因为新发现而激动万分,决定出去庆祝一下。

  (Because we were excited by...)

  【注意】为了使-ed形式表示的条件、动词让步意义更加明显,我们可以加上适当的连词。

  Even if invited,I won'tgo.

  即使受到邀请,我也不去。

  Though beaten by the opposite team,they did not lose heart.

  虽然被对手打败,便他们并没有丧失信心。

  Unless invited,he will not come back to the company.

  除非被邀请,不然他不会回到公司来的。

  3、表示条件

  动词的-ed形式作状语表示条件,相当于一个条件状语从句。

  Heated,water changes into steam.

  加热,水就能变成蒸汽。

  (=If water isheated...)

  Given more time,he would be able to do better.

  假如多给一些时间,他会干得更出色。

  (=If he was given more time...)

  Compared with other professors,she was an excellent speaker.

  与其他教授相比,她是一个优秀的演说家。

  4、表示让步

  动词的-ed形式作状语表示让步,相当于一个though/although引导的让步状语从句。

  Exhausted by the running,they went on running after the robber.

  尽管已经跑得筋疲力尽,他们还是继续追赶着那个强盗。

  (=Although they were exhausted by the running...)

  Laughed at by many people,he continued his research.

  尽管被许多人嘲笑,他还是继续他的研究。

  (=Even if he was laughed by many people...)

  Questioned many times a day,Andrew kept silent over the murder.

  尽管一天被盘问了多次,安德鲁仍然对那件谋杀案保持沉默。

  提示】有时动词的-ed形式作状语和动词的-ing形式的被动式作状语,并没有多大的区别,可以互换。

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