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主谓一致知识点总结,高中英语主谓一致知识点总结

来源:101教育网整理 2017-10-10 字体大小: 分享到:

  高中英语主谓一致知识点总结(一)

  主谓一致是指一个句子的主语和谓语动词保持人称与数的一致关系。有些句子不易直接看出主语的单复数,需仔细推敲。处理主谓一致要注意语法一致,意义上一致和就近一致。

  高考重点要求:

  1.根据主谓一致的三个原则(语法一致,意义一致,就近一致),判断和确定句子的主语和谓语在人称和数上保持一致

  2.掌握固定词组作主语,谓语动词的数与主语保持一致

  考生在掌握主谓一致的基本原则的同时,也要特别注意语法一致的原则,而且分数、百分数、不定式、动名词、定语从句等场合下的主谓一致问题仍将会是今后高考命题的热点。

  复习时需注意的要点

  1、集体名词看作整体时,谓语动词用单数,看作各个成员时,谓语用复数。

  例如:His family isn't large.

  His family are all fond of music.

  2、些名词如news,maths,physics等虽然有词尾"s"但意义上是单数,谓语动词要用单数。

  例如:The news is wonderful.

  Physics is an interesting subject.

  3、由数词+表示重量、里程、时间、金钱等名词所构成的复数名词主语,是当作一个整体看待的,后面用单数动词。

  高中英语主谓一致知识点总结(二)

  主谓一致

  英语句子中,主语的“人称”和“数”要限制,决定谓语动词的形式变化,这就叫“主谓一致”关系。它通常依据三项原则:

  1)语法一致;2)意义一致;3)就近一致。

  【语法一致原则】

  I.主语的“人称”决定谓语动词的形式。e.g.

  ①I love/She loves music.我/她爱好音乐。

  ②Are your mother a worker?(误)你母亲是工人吗?

  Is your mother a worker?(正)(主语your mother是单数第三人称)

  II.主语的“数”决定谓语动词的形式。

  1.“不可数名词、可数名词单数、单数代词、不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)”或“从句”等作主语,用单数谓语形式。e.g.

  ①The work is important.这项工作重要。

  ②To serve the country is our duty.为祖国服务是我们的义务。

  ③How and why he left was a sad story.他离开的经过和原因是一段伤心的经历。

  2.复数的名词、代词一般接复数谓语形式。e.g.

  ①The children are taken good care of.孩子们得到很好的照料。

  ②They have gone to Chengdu.他们去成都了。

  II.以“and”或“both…and”连接的并列主语:

  1.通常作复数用。e.g.

  ①Plastics and rubber never rot.塑料和橡胶从不腐烂。

  ②What he says and what he does do not agree.他言行不一致。

  ③Both Tom and I are fond of medicine.我和汤姆都喜欢医学。

  2.如果并列主语指的是“同一个”人(事、物、抽象概念),作单数用。e.g.

  ①The worker and writer has come.这位工人作家来了。

  ②A cart and horse was seen in the distance.远处能看见有一套马车。

  ③Truth and honesty is the best policy.真诚是最好的策略。

  3.“and”前、后的单数词语都有“each,every,many,a,no”等修饰时,仍作单数用。e.g.

  ①Every boy and every girl enjoys equal rights here.这里每个男孩和每个女孩都享有平等权益。

  ②No teacher and no student is excused from taking part in the activity.没有哪个教师或学生可以免于参加这项活动。

  Ⅳ.主语前、后加表“数、量”等的修饰语时:

  1.a)“many a+单名”接单数谓语:“a good(great)many+复名”接复数谓语。e.g.

  ①Many a fine man has died for it.许多优秀战士为此献出了生命。

  ②A great many parents were present at the meeting.许多家长出席了会议。

  b)"a/an+单名+or two"大多接单数谓语:"one or two+复名"接复数谓语。e.g.

  ①Only a word or two is(are)needed.只需说一两句。

  ②One or two reasoms were suggested.提出一两条理由。

  c)"a/an+单名+and a half"常接单数谓语;“one and a half+复名”多接复数谓语。e.g.

  ①A year and a half has passed.一年半已过去了。

  ②One and a half tons of rice are sold.已卖了一吨半大米。

  d)"more than one+单名"大多接单数谓语。e.g.

  ①More than one person was(were)absent.不止一个人缺席。

  "more+复名+than one"接复数谓语。e.g.

  ②More students than one have been there.不止一个学生去过那儿。

  "more than two(three,…)+复名"接复数谓语。e.g.

  ③More than one hundred students have attended the concert.不止一百名学生听了这场音乐会。

  2,主语前加表示“单位、度量”的短语如“a kind(sort/type/form/pair/cup/glass/piece/load/block/box/handful/quantity/ton/metre/…)of”等时,表示“单位、度量”的这个名词的单复数决定谓语形式。e.g.

  a)①There is only a small quantity of paper(books)left.只剩下少量的纸(书)了。

  ②Large quantities of water are needed.需要大量的水。

  b)①This kind of apple is sweet.这种苹果甜。

  ②This kind of apples is(are)sweet.(大多依kind,作单数用)

  ③These kind(s)of apple(s)are sweet.(总作复数用)

  但:Apples of this kind are sweet.(总作复数用)

  3.主语后接“with…”等构成的短语修饰成分时:谓语仍须与这类短语前的“主语”一致。可构成这类短语的常用“with,along with,together with,as well as,but,besides,except,added to,including,like,no less than,rather than,more than”等。e.g.

  ①A woman with two children has come.一位妇女带着两个孩子来了。

  ②I as well as they am ready to help you.不仅他们,我也愿帮助你。

  4."one of+复数名词+定语从句":

  1)定语从句的先行词通常是这个“复数名词”,因此从句的谓语用复数形式。e.g.

  ①This is one of the best novels that have appeared this year.这是今年出版的最佳小说之一。(关系词“that”代“novels”)

  ②He was one of the boys who were praised.他是受表扬的男孩之一。

  2)若“one”前加“this,the,the only”等时,定语从句的关系词指代one,作从句主语时,接单数谓语。e.g.

  He was the only one of the boys who was praaised.他是男孩中唯一受到表扬的。(关系词who代the only one)

  【意义一致原则(Notional Concord)】

  I.集合名词作主语时:(参见“名词”部分)

  1.有些通常作复数用(不变词形)。如:“people,police,cattle(牛,牲口),folk,youth,militia(民兵)”,等。e.g.

  The police have caught the murderer.警方已捕获凶手。

  2.有些指“整体”时作单数,指其中的“成员”时作复数(不变词形)。如"army,audience(听众),class,club(俱乐部),company(公司),committee(委员会),crew,crowd,staff(员工),family,public,government,group,party,union,couple,population,team."等。e.g.

  ①Our family is a happy one.我们有个幸福的家庭。

  ②The family are early risers.这家人都起得早。

  ③The public are(is)requested not to litter.请公众不要乱扔废弃物。

  但上述集合名词也可有复数形式。如:families,two classes.等。有些变复数形式后意义不同。如:peoples多个民族。youths男青年。folks亲友。

  II.代词作主语时:(参见“代词”部分)

  1.不定代词"each,one,much,(a)little,elther,neither,another,the other(+单名)"等常作单数用。它们所修饰的主语也作单数。e.g.

  ①Each of the girls(Each girl)has a new hat.每个女孩都有顶新帽子。

  ②Neither plan suits me.③Neither of the plans suits/suit me.两个计划都不适合我。

  2.下列复合不定代词一般作单数用:“someone,somebody,something,anybody,anyone,anything,everybody,everyone,eveything,nobody,no one,nothig”等。e.g.

  ①Is everybody here?都到齐了吗?

  ②There was nothing special then.那时没什么特别情况。

  3.下列不定代词作复数用:“(a)few,many,several,both”等。e.g.

  ①Few(of the guests)were familiar to us.没几个(客人)是我们熟识的。

  ②Both/Both(of)these are interesting.两部影片都有趣。

  4下列代词须视其“具体所指”来决定单、复数:

  1)“what,which,who,whose”等。e.g.

  ①Who is your brother?你兄弟是谁?

  ②Who are League Members.哪些是团员?

  2)"all,some,more,most,any,none,a lot(of),lots(of),"等。e.g.

  ①All(of the students)are working hard.(所有的学生)都在用功。

  ②All(of the paint)is fine.(这些油漆)都很好。

  3)"half(of),plenty(of),the rest(of),(a)part(of),the remainder(of)余下的)",等。e.g.

  ①Half of the apples are bad.苹果中有一半是坏的。

  ②Half of the apple is bad.这只苹果坏了一半。

  Ⅲ.“数词”、“数量、单位”等词语作主语时:(参见“数词”部分。)

  1.表示“运算”的数词通常作单数。e.g.

  Ten times four makes(make)forty.+乘以四得四十。

  2.表“时间、距离、金额、度量衡”等的词语,作“整体”看时作单数用,侧重指“若干单位”时作复数用。e.g.

  ①Twenty years is not a long time.二十年光阴,弹指一挥间。

  ②Twenty years have passed since he left.他离开已二十个年头了。

  3.“分数、百分数”通常依其“具体所指”来决定单、复数。e.g.

  ①About 40 percent/two-fifths of the books here are(is)worth reading.这些书中百分之四十/五分之二值得读。

  ②Only sixty percent/three-fifths of the work was done yesterday.昨天只干完了百分之六十/五分之三的工作。

  4."a number of(许多)/a varlety of(各式各样)"+复数名词,常作复数用。e.g.

  ①A number of students in this class are(is)from Sichuan.这个班有不少同学来自四川。

  ②There are a variety of toys in this shop.这家商店有各种各样的玩具。

  但是,“the number(数目)/the variety(种类)”+of+复数名词,作单数。e.g.

  ①The number of students in this college has doubled.这所大学的学生人数翻了一番。

  ②The variety of goods in this shop is rich.这家商店货物品种丰富。

  Ⅳ.单、复数同形或易混的词作主语时:(参见“名词”部分)

  1.以“-ics”结尾的学科名词:指教育、科研的某一学科,作单数。e.g.

  Mathematics seems easy to me.我似乎觉得数学不难。

  但是,表“具体的学业、活动”等时,多用作复数。e.g.

  ①Her mathematics are weak.她数学差。(指“学业成绩、能力”)

  ②What are your politiscs?你的政治观点如何?

  2.“works工厂,means方法,series系列,species物种,aircraft飞机”等名词单、复数同形,要从上下文判断其具体意义来决定单、复数。e.g.

  ①This works was(These works were)built two years ago.这(几)家工厂是两年前修建的。

  ②Every means has(All means have)been tried.各种办法都试过了。

  这类名词通常还有“fish,deer,sheep,headquarters(总部驻地),bellows(风箱),plastics,gallows(绞架),manners(礼貌),whereabouts(行踪),”等。(但news(消息)是不可数名词,通常只作单数用。)

  Ⅴ."the+形容词/分词"作主语时:

  1.指“一类”人或事物时,常用作复数用。e.g.

  ①The English speak English.英国人讲英语。

  ②The rejected were heaped in the corner.废品堆在角落里。

  2.指“某一个”人,或“抽象的”事物时,作单数用。e.g.

  ①The deceased was his father.去世的是他父亲。

  ②The agreeable is not always the useful.好看的不一定中用。

  ③The new and progressive always wins over the old.新生、进步的事物总是要战胜旧的东西。

  Ⅵ.专用名词作主语时:

  1.“书名、剧名、报刊名、国家名”等通常作单数用。e.g.

  ①The United States was founded in 1776.美国成立于1776年。

  ②The Arabian Nights is very interesting.《天方夜谭》很有趣。

  2.“书刊名”有时作单数或复数两可,尤其是编成集子的书。e.g.

  Dickens'Amerian Notes were(was)published in 1842.

  狄更斯所著的《美国笔记》出版于1842年。

  Ⅶ“what等引导的从句”作主语时:

  1.大多作单数用。e.g.

  ①What we need is more practice.我们需要的是更多的实践。

  ②What he says doesn't agree with what he does.他言行不一致。

  2.若从句是含复数意义的并列结构、或“表语”是复数时,谓语动词用单数或复数两可。e.g.

  ①What you say and think is/are no business of mine.你怎么说以及怎么想,不关我的事。

  ②What he bought was/were some books.他所买的是几本书。

  【就近一致原则(Proximity)】

  也称“邻近原则”,即:谓语与靠近的名词、代词(有时不一定是主语)在“人称、数”上一致。

  I.在正式文体中:

  1.由下列词语连接的并列主语:"or;either…or;nor;neither…or;whether…or;not…but;not only…but also";等。e.g.

  ①What he does or what he says does not concern me.他的行为或言谈都与我无关。

  ②Neither you nor I am wrong.你和我都没错。

  ③Not you but your father is to blame.不是你,而是你父亲该受责备。

  ④Not only you hut(also)he is wrong.不仅你错了,他也错了。

  2.在倒装句中:谓语可与后面第一个主语一致。e.g.

  ①In the distance was heard the clapping of hands and the shouts of the people.在远处,能听见鼓掌声和人们的呼喊声。

  ②There is(are)a pen and some books on the desk.桌上有一支钢笔和几本书。

  II.非正式文体中:

  有时依“就近一致原则”,但也可依“意义一致原则”或严格地依“语法一致原则”。e.g.

  Neither she nor I were there(意义一致)我和他当时都不在那儿。(非正式)

  Neither she nor I was there.(就近一致)(译文同上句)(正式)

  但是,如果依“就近一致原则”而与其他两项原则相矛盾时,则常常认为是不太合符规范的。e.g.

  No one except his own supporters agree with him.仅他自己的支持者同意他的意见。(依“就近”和“意义”一致的原则;但语法上,“No one”才是主语,谓语要改成“agrees”。“写作中”一般要依“语法一致”原则。

  主谓一致练习题

  1.Nobody but Jane ____ the secret.

  A.know B.knows C.have known D.is known

  2.All but one _____ here just now

  A.is B.was C.has been D.were

  3.Not only I but also Jane and Mary ____ tired of having one examination after another.

  A.is B.are C.am D.be

  4.A library with five thousnd books _______ to the nation as a gift.

  A.is offered B.have offered C.are offered D.has offered

  5.When and where to build the new factory _____ yet.

  A.is not decided B.are not decided C.has not decided D.have not decided

  6.The number of people invited ______ fifty,but a number of them ____ absent for different reasons.

  A.were,was B.was,was C.was,were D.were,were

  7._____ of the land in that district _____ covered with trees and grass.

  A.Two fifth,is B.Two fifth,are C.Two fifths,is D.Two fifths,are

  8.This is one of the most interesting questions that ____ asked.

  A.have B.has C.have been D.has been

  9.Between the two rows of trees _____ the teaching building.

  A.stand B.stands C.standing D.are

  10.All that can be done

  A.has been done B.has done C.have done D.were done

  11.They each _____ a new dictionary.

  A.has B.have C.is D.are

  12.The singer and the dancer ______ come to the meeting.

  A.has B.have C.are D.is

  13.I have finished a large part of the book;the rest _____more difficult.

  A.is B.are C.was D.were

  14.The wounded _______ by the hospital.

  A.have been taken in B.has been taken in C.have taken in D.has taken in

  KEYS:1-5 BDBAC 6-10 CCCBA 11-14 BBAA

  Subject-verb Concord(主谓一致练习题)

  1.Neither he nor I ___ for the plan.

  a.were b.is c.are d.am

  2.My family as well as I ___ glad to see you.

  a.was b.is c.are d.am

  3.My father,together with some of his old friends,___ there already.

  a.will be b.had been c.has been d.have been

  4.There are two roads and either ___ to the station.

  a.is leading b.are leading c.lead d.leads

  5.Nine plus three ___ twelve.

  a.are making b.is making c.make d.makes

  6.Twenty miles ___ a long way to cover.

  a.seem to be b.is c.are d.were

  7.Very few ___ his address in the town.

  a.has known b.are knowing c.know d.knows

  8.When and where this took place ___ still unknown.

  a.has b.is c.were d.are

  9.I know that all ___ getting on well with her.

  a.were b.are c.is d.was

  10.The rest of the novel ___ very interesting.

  a.seem b.is c.are d.were

  11.Our family ___ a happy one.

  a.are b.was c.are d.is

  12.The boy sitting by the window is the only one of the students who ___ from the countryside in our school.

  a.was b.were c.is d.are

  13.More than one answer ___ to the question.

  a.had given b.were given c.has been given d.have been given

  14.The students in our school each ___ an English dictionary.

  a.are having b.had c.has d.have

  15.The pair of shoes ___ worn out.

  a.had been b.have been c.were d.was

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