高一秋季全科辅导

高一

101教育热线电话
400-6869-101
微信
当前位置: 首页 > 高一> 高一英语> 高一英语知识点

不定式知识点总结,高中英语不定式知识点总结

来源:101教育网整理 2017-10-10 字体大小: 分享到:

  高中英语不定式知识点总结(一)

  动词不定式要点总结

  动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征,因此,在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语和状语。

  一、常接不定式作宾语的动词有want,love,learn,agree,decide,hope,refuse等。例如:

  I'm learning to skate on real ice.我正在真正的冰上学滑冰。

  [特别提醒]不定式短语作宾语时,如果还带有宾语补足语,通常用it作形式宾语,而把不定式短语放在宾语补足语之后。例如:

  He found it very difficult to get to sleep.他发现入睡很困难。

  二、动词不定式常用作目的状语。例如:

  He came to give us a talk yesterday.他昨天来给我们作了个报告。

  Mrs Brown went to see her doctor.布朗夫人去看她的医生了。

  三、tell,ask,want,order,get,wish,warn,teach,invite等动词后常跟不定式作宾语的补足语,构成tell/ask……sb to do sth(“告诉/请……某人做某事”)结构。例如:

  Could you ask him to call me,please?请你让他给我打个电话,好吗?

  [特别提醒]使役动词let,make,have等,感官动词see,hear,feel,watch,notice,look at,listen to等,后常跟不带to的不定式作宾语补足语。例如:

  A woman saw it happen when she was walking past.一位妇女路过时看到(它掉下)了。

  We often heard her sing in the next room.我们经常听到她在隔壁唱歌。

  注意:在被动语态句子中,不定式前必须加to.例如:

  He was made to do it.他被迫做这件事。

  She was often heard to sing in the next room.经常听到她在隔壁唱歌。

  四、不定式短语作定语要放在被修饰的词语之后。例如:

  I have a lot of work to do.我有许多事情要做。

  五、不定式短语作主语时,常用it作形式主语,真正的主语不定式短语放在后面。例如:

  It is right to give up smoking.戒烟是有益的。

  六、作表语。例如:

  To him,the first important thing was to save lives.对他来说,最重要的事情就是拯救生命。

  His wish is to become a scientist.他的愿望是当一名科学家。

  七、动词不定式用在疑问词how,when,where,what,which等之后,作宾语或宾语补足语。例如:

  He taught us how to use a computer.他教我们如何使用计算机。

  I don't know where to go?我不知道去哪里。

  高中英语不定式知识点总结(二)

  1.不定式的构成(以动词do为例)

  主动形式被动形式

  一般式to do to be done

  完成式to have done to have been done

  进行式to be doing无

  完成进行式to have been doing无

  2.不定式的意义

  不定式的一般式(to do)

  一般式表示的动作或状态,发生在谓语动词表示的动作或状态的同时或之后

  My wish is to become a doctor

  He seemed to be tired.

  She stopped to have a rest.

  不定式的被动式(to be done)

  当不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者时,不定式一般要用被动式.

  The building to be finished next month is for our teachers.

  I am going to Beijing,I have something to take to my parents,do you have something to be taken to your parents?

  如果谓语表示的动作(情况)发生时,不定式表示动作正在进行,这时候不定式就要用进行式.(to be doing)

  They are said to be building another bridge across the street.

  They seemed to be talking about something important.

  When I went to his home,he happened to be traveling around the world.

  I'm glad to be working with you.

  如果不定式所表示的动作或状态发生在谓语动词所表示动作或状态之前,就用完成式(to have done);若是在此基础上的被动含义,就用完成被动式(to have been done).

  He is said to have written a novel about the Long March.

  He thought it a pity not to have invited us.

  The assistant seemed to have been fired.

  He is said to have been taught French when he was a child.

  Einstein is said to have built up his theory when he was in his twenties.

  如果不定式的动作是在谓语所表示的时间之前一直在进行的动作,就要用完成进行式.

  They are said to have been collecting folk song in Xinjiang.

  We're happy to have been working with the experts all the month.

  B.用法:

  动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征。因此在句中可以做主语、表语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语和状语。

  一、不定式做主语:

  1、不定式做主语一般表示具体的某次动作。===动名词doing表示习惯的,经常的动作。

  e.g:To finish the building in a month is difficult.

  To do such things is foolish.

  To see is to believe.(对等)

  注:1).不定式作主语时,谓语用单数

  2).当主语较长,谓语较短时,常用it做形式主语,而将不定式放到谓语的后面。

  it做形式主语,不定式放在谓语动词之后常用于下列结构中:

  (1)It is/was+adj.+of sb.to do…

  (2)It is+adj.+for sb.+to do…

  It is easy/difficult/hard/foolish/unwise/right/wrong/unnecessary

  (3)it is+a+名词+to do...

  It is a pity/a pleasure/a pleasant thing/one's duty/an honor/a shame/a crime/no easy job…to do

  It takes(sb.)some time/courage/patience…to do…

  It requires courage/patience/hard work…to do…

  *注意:probable和possible均可作表语,但possible可以用不定式作真实主语,而probable不能用不定式作真实主语。

  It is probable for him to come to the meeting.(错)

  It is possible for him to come to the meeting.

  It is possible/probable that he will come to the meeting.

  二、不定式做表语

  主语是以aim duty hope idea intention plan job suggestion wish purpose task等为中心词的名词词组或以what引导的名词性从句表示,后面的不定式说明其内容,不定式作表语常表示将来或现在的动作或状态。

  eg:My idea is to climb the mountain from the north.

  Your mistake was not to write that letter.

  What I would suggest is to start work at once.

  三动词不定式作宾语

  以不定式结构为宾语的动词有:

  ask,agree,care,choose,demand,decide,expect,fail,help,hope,learn,manage,offer,plan,prepare,pretend,promise,refuse,want,wish等只能用动词不定式作宾语。

  口诀(接不定式作宾语的动词)

  想要学习早打算(want learn plan)

  快准备有希望(prepare hope wish expect)

  同意否供选择(agree offer choose)

  决定了已答应(decide be determined promise)

  尽力去着手做(manage undertake)

  别拒绝别假装(refuse pretend)

  失败不是属于你(fail)

  e.g.Tom refused to lend me his pen.

  We hope to get there before dark.

  The girl decided to do it herself.

  *注意:某些及物动词可用-ing也可用动词不定式作宾语但意义不同的有

  stop/go on/remember/forget/regret/try/mean/can't help/beusedto

  四.动词不定式做定语

  1.不定式作定语需要后置

  2.作定语的不定式与被修饰的名词或代词存在着两种主要的逻辑关系,即被修饰的名词和代词是不定式的逻辑主语(逻辑上的主谓关系)或逻辑宾语(逻辑上的动宾关系)。

  1)不定式前的名词是它的逻辑主语。

  He is the doctor to do the operation.

  2)不定式和它所修饰的名词是逻辑上的动宾关系。

  I have a lot of things to do.

  3)不定式前的名词是它修饰的对象。

  This is the right time to start.

  注意:如果不定式所修饰的词是way或place,介词可省略。

  He has no way to go(by).This is the best place to work(at)

  五.宾语补足语

  He want you to be his assistant.I saw her cross the street.

  [注1]如果谓语动词为感官动词或使役动词,则作宾补的不定式不可带to,这些动词有see,hear,feel,watch,notice;have,make,let等。

  I felt my blood run cold.What made you think like that?

  但如果句子是被动语态,则to不可省略。

  He was made to clean the windows as a punishment.

  Someone was heard to come up the stairs.

  [注2]1.谓语动词help后可接带to或不带to的不定式作宾补。用不带to的不定式表示帮助者直接参与动作;用带to的不定式表示主语没有直接参与动作。

  They helped me carry the boxes.

  This kind of soap will help you to wash the clothes more easily.

  2.在美式英语或非正式文体中,help后用作宾补的不定式均不带to。

  3.help后可以直接用带to或不带to的不定式作宾语。

  They helped(to)carry the furniture upstairs.

  [注3]look at及listen to后用作宾补的不定式不带to(这主要是美式英语)。

  We have been listening to the radio tell a long story.

  六.表语补足语,当不定式与主语存在逻辑上动宾关系的时候,用主动表被动。

  That is hard to say.The chair is comfortable to sit in.

  七.不定式做状语

  不定式做状语修饰动词、形容词、副词等,表示目的、原因、结果、条件等。

  1、表目的

  e.g.To learn a foreign language well,you must try your best(主语一致)

  He came here to attend an important meeting.

  He came here in order to see Charlie.

  I turned the radio down so as not to disturb him

  注:表示目的的不定式可以置于句首,这也是区别于其他功能的标志之一。

  *但是,置于句首表示目的的不定式可以是to,in order to,但却不可以是so as to.

  eg:To draw maps properly,you need a special pen.

  In order to draw maps properly,you need a special pen.

  To get the best results,use clean water.

  To be elected monitor of our class,he gave money to us.

  *放在句末时,to do表示目的,不可有“,”若有用doing表示伴随的目的

  e.g.He bowed to us to thank us for helping him find the way.

  He worked day and night,hoping to finish the work beforehand.

  注:1.不定式结构表示目的时,通常句子的主语就是它的逻辑主语(主语一致)

  e.g.He bought a bicycle to go to town more quickly.

  He went home to see his mother.

  例外eg:He opened the door for the children to come in.

  They sent a man to mend the window.

  2、表结果

  不定式结构表示结果更常见于下列句型

  ①so…as to…

  Would you be so kind as to lend me your bicycle/tell me the time?

  ②such(…)as to…

  I'm not such a fool as to believe that.

  ③adj./adv.+enough to…

  The boy is old enough to go to school.

  ④too…to…

  His eyesight is too poor to read such small letters.

  ⑤only to find,only to be told出乎意料之外的结果

  3.原因不定式可以用于动词、形容词或-ed分词后表示原因。

  He was too excited to get high marks.

  八.同位语

  Is this your purpose,to avoid being punished?

上一篇:非限制性定语从句知识点总结,高中英语非限制性定语从句知识点总结

下一篇:动名词知识点总结,高中英语动名词知识点总结

高一期末考前辅导
标签: 高一 英语 (责任编辑:wangliru)

相关文章推荐

精品课程推荐

更多精品课程
高一物理
匀变速直线运动的v-t图像典型例题
主讲:101远程教育网 免费试听
高一英语
改错小练兵
主讲:101远程教育网 免费试听
高一化学
离子方程式的正误判断易错题型
主讲:101远程教育网 免费试听

免费领取体验课

姓名
手机号
年级
*图形验证码
获取验证码
免费预约
世界那么大 阿幺带你转