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动名词知识点总结,高中英语动名词知识点总结

来源:101教育网整理 2017-10-10 字体大小: 分享到:

  高中英语动名词知识点总结(一)

  动名词由动词原形+ING构成,是一种非谓语动词形式相关知识点精讲:

  1.作主语。例如:Fightingbroke out between the South and the North.南方与北方开战了。

  2.作宾语有些动词可以用动名词作宾语。例如:

  admit承认appreciate感激avoid避免complete完成consider认为delay耽误

  finish完成imagine想象mind介意miss想念postpone推迟

  例如:Would youmind turning down your radio a little,please?你把收音机音量调小一点,好吗

  b.有些结构后面可以用动名词作宾语或其他成分。例如:

  burst outkeep oninsist oncount onset about

  put offbe good attake upgive upbe successful

  高中英语动名词知识点总结(二)

  动名词可以跟动词一样,拥有自己的宾语或者状语,也可以像名词那样,在句子中作主语、宾语等成分。动名词的构成方式:v.+-ing。

  一、动名词的句法功能

  动名词在句子中可以作主语、宾语、表语、定语和同位语。

  1.作主语

  用来表示一般性或经常性的意义,有时可与不定式互换。如:

  Swimming with dolphins is one of the world‘s most profitable tourist activities.

  注意:单个的动名词或动名词短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

  例1(2011年高考新课标卷)Planning so far ahead no sense-so many things will have changed by next year.

  A.made B.is making

  C.makes D.has made

  解析:答案为C。动名词(planning so far ahead)在句中作主语。句意为:计划这么超前没有意义,到明年好多情况会发生变化的。破折号前说的是现在的客观情况,应该用一般现在时,因此正确答案为C。

  动名词短语作主语时,为了避免句子头重脚轻,保持句子平衡,习惯将动名词短语放在句尾,而用it作形式主语。这样,句子结构一目了然,便于读者理解。如:

  It’s no good spending too much time chatting or playing online games.

  用于这种形式的表语常是一些特定的形容词或名词,如useful,good,nice,no use,no good,fun等。

  2.作宾语

  动名词既可作动词的宾语,也可作介词的宾语。如:

  He loved experimenting and his aim was to become a scientist like his father.

  The manager said he was looking forward to seeing all the newly-made plans carried out in time.

  注意:句中若出现宾语补足语时,常用it作形式宾语,而把真正的宾语后置。这样既保持句子结构紧凑,又便于读者理解。如:

  We all consider it no use standing by and doing nothing.

  例2(2012年高考北京卷)One learns a language by making mistakes and them.

  A.corrects B.correct

  C.to correct D.correcting

  解析:答案为D。空格处缺的是一个与making mistakes并列的均作介词by的宾语的动名词。句意为:一个人就是通过不断地犯错并改正来学会一门语言。

  例3(2012年高考上海卷)When Peter speaks in public,he always has trouble the right things to say.

  A.thinking of B.to think of

  C.thought of D.think of

  解析:答案为A。考查固定搭配:have trouble(in)doing sth.意为“做……很费劲;做……有困难”。动名词作介词in的宾语,in可以省略。

  例4(2011年高考四川卷)Lydia doesn‘t feel like _______ abroad.Her parents are old.

  A.study B.studying

  C.studied D.to study

  解析:答案为B。句意为:莉迪娅不想去国外学习,她的父母年纪都大了。feel like后跟名词或者动名词作宾语,意为“想做某事”,因此正确答案为B。

  3.作表语

  多表示抽象性或习惯性的动作,通常说明主语的内容,与主语是对等的关系。如:

  My hobby is painting.

  The first step in making friends is associating with other people.

  4.作定语

  表示所修饰名词的用途。这时,可以改写成由for作定语的短语。如:

  Last week I bought a new swimming suit(=suit for swimming).

  The MITx will serve as the foundation for the new learning platform(=platform for learning).

  5.作同位语

  对前面的抽象名词进行进一步的解释或者补充说明。如:

  His dream,going abroad to further his studies after graduation,has finally come true.

  二、动名词的复合结构

  1.构成

  (1)物主代词+动名词

  Do you mind my hanging out with Tom?

  (2)人称代词+动名词

  They don’t like me sitting in front of the computer all day long.

  (3)名词所有格+动名词

  Jack‘s not attending the meeting on time made us worried.

  (4)名词普通格+动名词

  I can hardly imagine Stella carrying out the project all by herself.

  含名词所有格的复合结构作宾语时,可以用普通格来代替,但是该复合结构作主语时,则不可以用普通格代替。

  2.形式

  (1)否定式:将not放在v.-ing前面。

  Alice’s not passing the exam made her parents very angry.

  动名词的复合结构部分可以改写成相关的从句。此句可以改写成:That Alice‘s didn’t pass the exam made her parents very angry.

  注意:动名词与其逻辑主语之间构成被动关系时,用被动式;动名词表示的动作发生在句子谓语动词动作之前时,用完成式。

  (2)被动式:being+v.-ed。

  She didn‘t mind her notebooks being taken away and used by other fellow students.

  例5(2012年高考福建卷)China recently tightened its waters controls near the Huangyan Island to prevent Chinese fishing boats from in the South China Sea.

  A.attacking B.having attacked

  C.being attacked D.having been attacked

  解析:答案为C。prevent sb.from doing sth.意为“阻止某人做某事”。句意为:中国最近加紧对黄岩岛的水域控制来阻止中国渔船在中国南海被袭击。本句中的fishing boats和attack是被动关系,因此正确答案为C。

  (3)完成式:having+v.-ed。

  I know something about his having gone to Atlanta.

  3.句法功能

  动名词的复合结构在句子中主要作主语和宾语。如:

  (1)作主语

  Tom’s coming home late worries his mother.

  (2)作动词宾语

  I would appreciate your calling back this afternoon.

  (3)作介词宾语

  I was afraid of the tent falling down during the night.

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