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主语从句知识点总结,高中英语主语从句知识点总结

来源: 2017-10-24 字体大小: 分享到:

  高中英语主语从句知识点总结(一)

  1.定义:用作主语的从句叫做主语从句。

  2.构成:关联词+简单句

  3.引导主语从句的关联词有三类:

  (1)从属连词that。

  例如:That they were in truth sisters was clear from the facial resemblance between them.很明显,她们确是亲姐妹,她们的脸型很相似。

  (2)从属连词whether。

  例如:Whether he'll come here isn't clear.他是否会来这里还不清楚。

  (3)连接代词:

  Who whom whose what

  Which whoever whatever whichever

  连接副词:

  Where when how why

  例如:

  What she did is not yet known.她干了什么尚不清楚。

  How this happened is not clear to anyone.这事怎样发生的,谁也不清楚。

  Whoever comes is welcome.不论谁来都欢迎。

  Wherever you are is my home----my only home.你所在的任何地方就是我的家----我唯一的家。

  注:主语从句能用it作形式上的主语。常以it作形式主语的句型有:

  A.It+be+形容词(obvious,true,natural,surprising,good,wonderful,funny,possible,likely,certain,probable,etc.)+that从句。

  例如:

  It is certain that she will do well in her exam.毫无疑问她考试成绩会很好。

  It is probable that he told her everything.很可能他把一切都告诉她了。

  B.It+be+名词词组(no wonder,an honour,a good thing,a pity,no surprise,etc.)+that从句。

  例如:

  It's a pity that we can't go.很遗憾我们不能去。

  It's no surprise that our team should have won the game.我们没赢这场比赛真意外。

  C.It+be+过去分词(said,reported,thought,expected,decided,announced,arranged,etc.)+that从句。

  例如:

  It is said that Mr.Green has arrived in Beijing.据说格林先生已经到了北京。

  It is reported that China has sent another man-made earth satellite into orbit.据报道中国又成功地发射了一颗人造地球卫星。

  D.It+seem,happen等不及物动词及短语+that从句。

  例如:

  It seems that Alice is not coming to the party at all.Alice似乎不来参加晚会。

  It happened that I was out that day.碰巧我那天外出了。

  E.It+doesn't matter(makes no difference,etc.)+连接代词或连接副词引起的主语从句。

  例如:

  It doesn't matter whether she will come or not.她是否来这无关紧要。It makes no difference where we shall have the meeting.我们在哪里开会毫无区别。

  F.当that引导的主语从句出现在疑问句中时,要以it作形式主语,而把主语从句后置。

  例如:

  Is it true that the scientist will give us a lecture next week?下周那位科学家将给我们作报告是真的吗?

  Does it matter much that they will not come tomorrow?他们明天不来很要紧吗?

  G.当主语从句出现在感叹句中时,要以it作形式主语,而把主语从句后置。

  例如:How strange it is that the children are so quiet!孩子们这么安静真奇怪!

  高中英语主语从句知识点总结(二)

  主语从句属于名词性从句,常在句中充当主语;亦可用it作形式主语,主语从句置于句末。为了便于学习和复习,现将其典型用法归纳如下:

  一、主语从句的引导词范围

  主语从句可以按其引导词的不同分为三类:

  1.用从属连词that,whether引导的主语从句

  That you are coming to London is the best news I have heard this long time.

  长久以来我听到的最好的消息就是你要来伦敦。

  Whether the meeting will be put off has not been decided yet.是否取消会议还没有决定。

  2.用连接代词和连接副引导的主语从句

  常用连接代词who,that,which,what和连接副词when,where,how,whether,why,等引导。

  What I want to drink is coffee.我想喝的是咖啡。

  When they will come hasn't been made public.

  他们来的时间没有公布。

  3.whoever,whatever,whichever等引导的主语从句

  Whoever comes will be welcome.无论谁来都欢迎。

  Whatever you say will interest us all.不管你说什么都令我们感兴趣。

  Whenever you come is OK.你无论何时来都行。

  二、主语从句的语序

  主语从句在句中要用陈述句语序。如:

  What we need is your help.我们所需要的就是你的帮助。

  What surprised me most was that she could play the vilin so well.是我感到吃惊的是她拉小提琴这么好。

  How he was successful is still a puzzle.他是如何成功的还是个谜。

  三、连接词的选用

  从句中缺少主语时:常用what导,亦可用which表示选择,用who/whom/whoever指人。

  1.that和what的区别

  what引导主语从句时,表示“所……的(东西)”,并且在从句中充当句子成分;而that作为从属连词,引导主语从句时,其本身没有实际意义,不充当句子成分,通常不可省略。

  What she was afraid of was their taking her daughter abroad.

  她害怕的是他们带她女儿出国。

  That he will refuse the offer is unlikely.

  他不可能拒绝这个报价。

  It is reported that three people were killed in the accident.

  据报道,三个人在这次事故中死亡。

  2.if和whether的区别

  whether引导的主语从句可放在句首,也可放在后面,但if引导的主语从句一般放在后面。

  Whether I'll go there is not decided.

  =It is not decided whether/if I'll go there.

  我是否去那还没决定。

  3.其他连接代词和连接副词的选用

  根据主语从句的具体意义,正确的选择who,that,which,what,when,where,how,whether,why等连接词,这些连接词既有疑问意义,又起连接作用,同时在从句中充当各种成分。

  Who broke the window yesterday isn’t clear还不清楚昨天谁打破了窗户。

  What is needed is careful preparation.需要的是认真仔细的准备。

  Which team will win the match is still not clear.那一队能赢得比赛还不能确定。

  Why he did that was a secret.他为何那样做还是一个谜。

  4.whoever与whatever,whichever的区别

  (1)whoever相当于anyone who,表明泛指关系,表示

  “任何……的人都,凡是……的人都”。

  Whoever comes will be welcome.谁来都是受欢迎的。

  Whoever did this job must be rewarded.无论谁做这件事都要得到报酬。

  Whoever walks around in such a heavy rain will catch a cold.任何人在这种大雨中行走都会患感冒。

  (2)whatever相当于anything that,表示“无论什么……”。

  Whatever was said here must be kept secret.在这里所说的一切都要保密。

  Whatever you want can be found here.你在这里可以找到任何你想要的东西。

  (3)whichever意为“无论哪个,无论哪些”。既可指人,也可指物;既可单独使用,也可修饰名词,也可以跟of短语连用。

  Whichever of us fulfils his task first will lend a hand to others.

  无论我们中哪一个先完成了任务都将帮助其他人。

  Whichever book you choose doesn't matter to me.你选哪本书不关我的事。

  四、It构成的主语从句

  主语从句可以放在句子后面,而用it作形式主语放在句首,尤其是从属连词that引导的主语从句常用于此种句式中。这种句式主要有:

  (1)It+be+adj.+that­clause,常用于这种句型的形容词有:possible,(un)likely,strange,probable,true,doubtful,hard,good等。但what,whatever,whoever,whichever引导的主语从句一般不后置。

  It is possible that I may not be able to come.我有可能不能来了。

  It is a pity that you missed such a fine talk.很遗憾你错过了如此美好的谈话。

  (2)It+be+n.+that­clause,常用于这种句型的名词及名词词组有:good news,common knowledge,an honour,a pity,a shame,no wonder,a mistery等。

  It’s a pity that he can’t attend the meeting.真遗憾,他不能参加晚会。

  It is a fact that she won the first place.她赢得了第一名是事实。

  (3)It+be+-ed.+that­clause,常用于这种句型的过去分词有:said,believed,reported,pointed out,discussed,proved,decided等。

  It is said that he was a famous editor.据说他曾是一名著名的编辑。

  It is suggested that the meeting(should)be held this afternoon.有人建议今天下午应该开会。

  (4)It seems∕appears等不及物动词+that­clause,如:

  It seems that it is going to rain.看起来天马上要下雨。

  It now appears that they are in trouble.看起来,他们现在是处于困境中啊。

  五、主语从句中的主谓一致关系

  主语从句作主语相当于单数第三人称作主语,谓语动词用单数,如果由and连接两个或两个以上的主语从句作主语时,谓语动词用复数;由两个或多个连接词引导一个主语从句,谓语动词用单数。如:

  When the meeting will begin ______not been decided yet.(has not)

  When they will start and where they go _______not been decided yet.(have not)

  When and where the meeting will begin _______not been decided.(has not)

  六、否定转移

  英语中常将seem,appear等后的从句的否定转移到前面。

  It doesn’t seem that they know where to go看来他们不知道往哪去。

  It doesn’t appear that we will have a sunny day tomorrow看来我们明天不会碰上好天气。

  七、先行词与it强调词it的区别。

  强调词it与先行词it的区别可以通过恢复原句的方式来判断,即如果把it is...that...去掉后剩下的成分仍然能组成一个完整的句子,这就是强调句型,否则就不是。

  It is there that accidents often happen.

  →Accidents often happen there.

  以上就是强调句型,被强调成分是状语,把it is...that...去掉,还原成后来的非强调句。

  It is clear that not all boys like football.

  上面的句子如果去掉it is...that...后就成了Clear not all the boys like football.很显然这不是一个完整的句子,因此不是强调句型,而是由it作先行词引导的一个主语从句。

  注意:强调句型与带有it的主语从句的区别

  It is there that accidents often happen.(强调句)

  It is a fact that English is being accepted as international language.(主语从句)

  强调句与主语从句虽然在形式上很相似,都含有It is/was…that…,但是它们有一个很重要的区别,强调句去掉It is/was…that之后,句子结构仍然完整,而主语从句却不能这样,所以第一个句子可改为“Accidents often happen there.”。而第二个却不能改为“A fact English is being accepted as an international language.”。

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