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高一英语动词知识点总结

来源:101教育网整理 2017-10-24 字体大小: 分享到:

  高一英语动词知识点总结

  一、现在进行时

  1.表示现在(说话瞬间)正在进行或发生的动作。

  [例句]He is reading a newspaper now.

  2.表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作(说话时动作不一定正在进行)。

  [例句]What are you doing these days?

  3.表示说话人现在对主语的行为表示赞叹或厌恶等,常与always,constantly,continually等副词连用。

  [例句]He is always thinking of others.

  4.表示在最近按计划或安排要进行的动作。常限于go,come,leave,start,arrive等表“移动”、“方向”的词。

  [例句]He is coming to see me next week.

  二、过去进行时

  1.表示过去某时正在进行的动作。

  [例句]He was sleeping when Mary came to see him.

  2.动词go,come,leave,arrive,start等的过去进行时常表过去将来时。

  [例句]She said she was going to Beijing the day after tomorrow.

  三、一般现在时

  1.表示现在习惯或经常反复发生的动作或存在的状态,常与usually,always,sometimes,often,every day/week/month/year等时间状语连用。

  [例句]He often does his homework in his study.

  2.表示主语现在的特征、性格和状态。

  [例句]The dictionary belongs to me.

  3.表示客观规律或科学真理、格言,以及其他不受时间限制的客观存在。

  [例句]The moon goes around the sun.

  4.在有连词if,unless,before,as soon as,when,once,however等引导的时间、条件和让步状语从句中,用一般现在时表将来。

  [例句]If you work hard,you won’t fail in the exam.

  四、一般过去时

  1.表示过去某一时间发生的动作或存在的状态。

  [例句]She went to the zoo yesterday.

  2.在时间、条件状语从句中代替过去将来时。

  [例句]He said when she came he would tell her.

  五、一般将来时

  1.表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态,常与表示将来的时间状语连用。

  [例句]I don’t know what will happen in the future.

  2.常用来表示将来时的结构包括:

  (1)shall/will+动词原形:(单纯)表将来,一般不用于条件句。

  (2)be going to+动词原形:(计划)打算做……。

  (3)be about to+动词原形:即将或正要去做某事,通常不与时间状语连用,但可与when引导的从句连用。

  (4)be to+动词原形:预定要做……。

  (5)be doing表示按计划、安排即将发生的动作,常与go,start,set out,leave,reach,arrive,return,come,move等表位移的动词连用。

  六、现在完成时

  1.表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果。

  [例句]—Have you had your supper yet?—Yes,I have just had it.

  2.常与介词for,during,in,within,over等引导的时间状语连用,表示过去的某一行为一直延续到现在。

  [例句]I haven’t seen my English teacher for a long time.

  3.表示反复或习惯性的动作,常与several times,once,twice,frequently等频度副词连用。

  [例句]I have been to the USA several times.

  4.表示从过去到现在没有发生过的动作。

  [例句]I haven’t swept the floor for a week.

  5.用在时间、条件状语从句中,表示从句动作先于主句动作完成。

  [例句]I’ll tell him after you have left.

  6.在“最高级+名词”或在“这是第几次…”之后跟定语从句,从句用现在完成时。

  [例句]①This is the third time I have been there.

  ②This is the best tea I have ever drunk.

  七、过去完成时

  1.表示在过去某一时刻以前已经开始并一直延续到这一时刻、或是在此刻前已经完成的动作。

  [例句]By the end of last term,we had learned 1,000 English words.

  2.有些动词(如:hope,think,expect,mean,intend,suppose,want等)的过去完成时可表示过去未曾实现的希望、打算或意图。

  [例句]I had hoped to see more of Beijing.

  ◆动词时态应注意的几点

  1.瞬间性动词的一般现在时和现在进行时常用来表示将来的动作。例句:

  ①The film begins in a minute.

  ②My uncle is leaving tomorrow morning.

  2.在时间、条件、让步状语从句中,常用一般现在时代替一般将来时。例句:

  ①Every time I listen to that song,I’ll think of my old friend.

  ②If you do that,I shall be very pleased.

  ③They’ll stand by you even if you don’t succeed.

  3.一般过去时和现在完成时的区别:一般过去时和现在完成时都表示过去所发生的动作,但现在完成时强调这一动作与现在的关系,如对现在产生的影响、结果等,所以它不能和表示过去的时间状语连用;一般过去时只表示过去的事实,不表示和现在的关系,因而它可以和表示过去的时间状语连用。如:

  —Have you finished your work?

  —Yes,I have.

  —When did you finish it?

  —I finished it last summer.

  ◆直接引语与间接引语转换时应注意的几个问题:

  1.人称的变化

  2.时态的变化

  3.时间状语的变化

  4.地点状语的变化

  例句:

  ①Xiao Yi said,“I want to go to the park this afternoon.”

  →Xiao Yi said(that)he wanted to go to the park that afternoon.

  ②Bob said,“We’ll have a meeting here tomorrow morning.”

  →Bob said(that)they would have a meeting there the next morning.

  ◆定语从句中关系代词只能用that和不能用that的几种情况:

  只能用that的情况

  1.先行词是不定代词。

  例句:Please tell me everything that happened to you.

  2.先行词被形容词最高级、序数词或only,last,same,very等修饰。

  例句:①This is the most interesting movie that I have ever seen.

  ②This is the only book that I read during the summer holiday.

  3.先行词既包括人又包括物。例句:She talked about the writer and his works that interested her.

  不能用that的情况

  1.非限制性定语从句中。

  例句:He said he could speak three foreign languages,which is not true.

  2.先行词本身是that。

  例句:I have that which you gave me.

  3.“介词+关系代词”结构。

  例句:The person to whom I talked just now is Tom.

  ◆现在完成进行时与现在完成时进行的比较:

  1.强调动作还未结束时,多用现在完成进行时;强调动作的结果时,多用现在完成时。例句:

  ①I have been painting the paining.(强调“一直在画”这个动作)

  ②I have painted the painting.(强调“画完了”这个结果)

  2.有些动词不能用在现在完成进行时中,但可用在现在完成时中。如:have,love,see等。例句:

  ①She has had a cold for a week.

  ②They have loved each other for three years.

  ③I have seen this movie.

  -ing形式:

  1.having done

  having done是非谓语动词中-ing形式的完成式,而doing则是其一般式,它们都与句中主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系,只是doing与句中谓语动词同时发生或基本上同时发生;having done则表示动作或状态发生在句中谓语动词之前。

  [例句]

  ①Hearing the news,they got excited.(hear和get excited这两个动作几乎同时发生)

  ②Having arrived at the top of mountain,they took a rest.(arrive发生在take a rest之前)

  2.动词后接动词的-ing形式和不定式有些动词后既可接动词的-ing形式也可接to do形式作宾语,但意义有所不同。

  [例如]

  ①forget/remember/regret doing sth.表示动作已经发生;

  forget/remember/regret to do sth.则表示该动作未发生。

  ②mean to do sth.表示“打算做某事”;

  mean doing sth.表示“意味着做某事”。

  ③try to do sth.表示“设法尽力做某事”;

  try doing sth.表示“试着做某事”。

  ④stop to do sth.表示“停下来接着做另一件事”;

  stop doing sth.表示“停止做某事”。

  ⑤go on to do sth.表示“(做完某事)接着做另一件事”;

  go on doing sth.表示“继续做同一件事”(=go on with sth.)。

  ⑥can’t help to do sth.表示“不能帮助做某事”;

  can’t help doing sth.表示“情不自禁地做某事”。

  3.have/has been doing

  have/has been doing是现在完成进行时的构成,强调动作的延续过程,动作可能还在进行。而have/has done是现在完成时的构成,强调动作的结果,该动作通常已经结束。

  [例句]

  ①I have written a book.(动作结束)

  ②I have been writing a book.(可能未写完,侧重最近一直忙于写书)

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