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高一英语知识点总结_句子成分知识点

来源:101教育网整理 2017-11-01 字体大小: 分享到:

  【句子成分知识点总结】

  组成句子的各个部分叫句子成分。句子成分可分为主语、谓语、宾语、表语、定语、状语、补足语、独立成分。

  1、主语

  主语是一个句子的主题。

  主语的位置

  ①陈述句中,一般在一句之首。

  They managed to rescue all the people in the flood.

  ②疑问句、倒装句中,一般在助动词、情态动词和动词之后。

  Up went the arrow into the air.

  Why do they move and burn more of the forest?

  Not only will help be given to people who are disabled to find jobs,but also medical treatment will be provided for people who need it.

  ③祈使句中,往往省略。

  Take this money and buy yourself some more books.(句首省略了you)

  ④There be结构中,在be之后。

  Around the area of Aswanthere are a lot of important old temples,which date from about 1250 BC.

  2、谓语

  谓语在句子中说明主语的动作,主语具有的特征或所处的状态。

  (1)由简单动词构成的谓语

  They started to use English,but they also brought in some words from their own languages.

  (2)由动词短语构成的谓语

  Dr.Manette realized that the sister must have been very badly treated.

  3、表语

  表语说明主语的身份、特征、类别、状态等情况,它位于连系动词之后,与之构成所谓的系表结构。

  表语的位置

  ①通常位于连系动词之后,但下列情况下,置于连系动词之前。为了强调表语。

  In the north isScotland,with its capitalEdinburgh.北面是苏格兰,首都是爱丁堡。

  ②由How/What引出的感叹句中

  What a curious hotel it was!

  ③某些让步状语从句中

  Child as the boy was,he knew what was the right thing to do.

  ④“the+比较级…,the+比较级…结构中”。

  The more you listen to English,the easier it becomes.英语你听得越多,就越容易听懂。

  4、宾语

  宾语分为动词宾语和介词宾语。

  宾语表示法

  ①名词用作宾语。

  Bob asked all the airlines to fly the pop stars for free.

  ②代词用作宾语。

  It picked it up in its mouth and carried it into the bushes.

  ③数词用作宾语。

  Canadacovers six of the world's 24 time areas.

  ④名词化的形容词用作宾语。

  She's always helping the poorer than herself.

  ⑤副词用作宾语。

  Since then the number of milu deer there has greatly increased.

  ⑥不定式用作宾语

  I just didn't wish to put you to the trouble of changing a large note.

  ⑦动名词作宾语或名词化分词(主要是过去分词)作宾语

  When she had finished listening to the news,Mrs.Cousins turned off the radio.

  ⑧句子用作宾语

  I suggest that you choose someone who you think is kind and friendly.

  直接宾语和间接宾语

  可具有这种双宾语的及物动词有:bring,fetch,give,hand,leave,lend,offer,pass,pay,promise,read,refuse,show,sing,teach,tell,write,buy,find,get,make,envy,return,sell等。

  I don't envy you your job.

  5、补足语

  补足语是一种补足主语和宾语的意义的句子成分。用作补足语的有名词、形容词、副词、不定式(短语)、分词(短语)、介词短语等。

  He persuaded other people to provide money or to give help.

  I think you'll find these materials much better and much more suitable.

  The lion could still be seen in the bushes eating the meat.

  This song is thought to be most popular.

  6、定语

  定语用来修饰名词或代词,说明人或物的状态、品质、数量等。

  定语表示法

  It was the earliest research centre for agriculture.(形容词用作定语)

  They had brought a picnic lunch with him.(名词用作定语)

  I'm looking for another speaker who could give a talk.(代词用作定语)

  In 1911,she received a second Nobel Prize for her research,becoming the first person in the world to receive two Nobel prizes.(数词用作定语)

  The way out lies in the development of education.(副词用作定语)

  There are plenty of interesting places to visit.(不定式用作定语)

  Everybody was at his fighting post.(动名词用作定语)

  By the end of the year,the total money collected had come to over 92 million dollars,all of which were sent to Africa.(分词用作定语)

  I know a woman whose three sons are all soldiers.(句子用作定语)

  7.状语

  状语是指描述被描述对象的状态,包括时间状语,地点状语,方式状语,伴随状语,让步状语等。

  状语表示法

  1.副词,如carefully,例句:he did his housework carefully

  2.介词短语,如in the classroom,例句he did his homework carefully in the classroom

  3.非谓语短语,如seen from the top of the mountain,或者when facing difficulties,例句Seen from the top of the mountain,the houses beneath are very small

  When facing difficulties,w e should keep calm

  4.从句,如时间状语从句,地点状语从句,让步状语从句,原因状语从句等

  例句He will come back next week when the opening ceremony begins.

  He will come to the school where he spent his childhood.

  Although he failed in the exam,he never gave up his goals.

  He failed in his exam because he gives up his goals halfway.

  【寄语】:句子成分的概念高考不会考,但这些知识的重要性不言而喻。要想有效的进行听、说、读、写,必须先把句子的结构弄清,不然的话,别人说的话听的时候抓不住重点,别人文章中的表达理解时不知所以。同样,自己也无法用正确的、逻辑严密的句子来表达。何其苦也!希望同学们用这些知识来武装自己,做一个处理句子的高手,在英语的世界里劈波斩浪!

  【句子成分考点分析】

  1.不定式或者ing形式作主语或者表语;

  2.as引导的让步状语从句的倒装;

  3.必须跟不定式以及ing形式做宾语的动词;

  4.做宾补的形容词以及做状语的副词的区分;

  5.主句和从句的区分。

  【句子成分知识点误区】

  1.动词原形不可以作主语或者表语;

  2.倒装结构中的主语的位置;

  3.后跟ing形式以及不定式的动词的误用;

  4.作状语和做宾补不分;

  5.谓语动词和非谓语动词的区分。

  【典型例题】

  1.He found the street much ______.

  A.crowd B.crowding C.crowded D.crowdedly

  答案:C

  解析:错选D。此处形容词做宾补,对于宾语the street进行补充说明,所以要用形容词做宾补,D是副词,副词作状语是用来修饰动词。

  2.Give me one more minute ____ I’ll be able to finish it.

  A.and B.or C.if D.so

  答案:A

  解析:错选D。此处考察“祈使句+and+陈述句”的结构,相当于“if从句,主句”的结构,此处and连接两个并列的句子。

上一篇:高一英语知识点总结_简单句的基本句型知识点

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