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介词和介词短语知识点总结,高一英语介词知识点

来源:101教育网整理 2017-11-03 字体大小: 分享到:

  【介词和介词短语知识点总结】

  介词不能单独在句子当中担当成分,它后面必须接名词、代词或相当于名词的其他词类搭配(介词+宾语)构成介词短语;和动词搭配构成短语动词,然后才能够在句子当中充当成分。

  一、介词短语的句法功能

  1.作定语

  The key to the door is missing.

  2.作表语

  As we know,Japanis to the east of China.

  3.作状语

  1)On Sundays,the family are mostly out.(时间状语)

  2)On top of the hill stands a TV tower.(地点状语)

  3)All the work must be done by hand.(方式状语)

  二、介词的复合结构

  1.介词+宾语+形容词

  He is used to sleeping with all the windows open.

  2.介词+宾语+分词

  The wounded boy glared at the nobleman with his teeth clenched.

  3.介词+宾语+不定式

  The cat humped its back just like a fierce tiger to jump upon me.

  4.介词+宾语+副词

  The little boy rushed out of the house without anything on.

  5.介词+宾语+介词短语

  The teacher entered the classroom with a book under his arm.

  三、介词的叠用

  在少数介词之后还可接另一个介词短语,也就是我们所称的二重介词。如:

  The naughty boy suddenly rushed out from behind the tree to frighten the girl.

  四、介词+and+介词

  Not knowing what to do,the worried officer walked up and down the room.

  There are many trees in and outside the town.

  五、常易混用介词的区别

  1.表示“上、下”等方位的介词。

  2.表示地点的in和at的区别

  a)at表示位置,in表示“在…内”如:

  —Where is he?—He is at the cinema.(问话者想知道的是位置)

  —Is he in the cinema?—Yes,he is.(问话者可能已经在影院门外)

  b)at表示小地点,in表示大地点

  They arrived at the village at seven.

  They arrived in Beijing at seven.

  3.in,to和on在方位名词前的区别

  in表示在某范围之内;to表示某范围之外的地方;on表示“毗邻、接壤”

  Taiwanlies in the east ofChina.

  Taiwanlies to the east of the mainland ofChina.

  Mongolia(蒙古)is(lies)on the north of China.

  4.表示时间的in和after

  用于将来时态时,in后面接“时段”;after后面接“时点”。试比较:

  He will be back in five hours.

  He will be back after five o’clock.

  after后面也可接“时段”,但应该用在过去时态的句子中。

  They came back after five days.

  【介词和介词短语考点分析】

  一些常见介词如in,at,for,to,by,on,against,between,along,below,with,as等的辨析;

  一些介词短语如next to,far from,out of,due to,in all,in fact,in short,in return,in search of,in place of,for lack of,for fear of,by nature,in case,by chance的辨析.

  【介词和介词短语知识点误区】

  1.一些介词的基本用法不清;2.一些多义介词的用法弄混;3.一些介词短语不会灵活运用。

  【典型例题】

  1.Would you mind not picking the flowers in the garden?They are ____ everyone’s enjoyment.

  A.in B.at C.for D.to

  解析:错选D。for everyone’s enjoyment意为“为了大家欣赏”,for在此处为一基本用法,但受to one’s joy的影响错选答案。正确答案为C。

  2.So far,we have done a lot to build a low-carbon economy,but it is ____ ideal.We have to work still harder.

  A.next to B.far from C.out of D.due to

  解析:错选C。next to挨着,far from远非,out of出于,due to因为,根据意思,有空的句子要表达“但还很不理想”。正确答案为B。

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