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过去分词知识点总结,高一英语过去分词知识点

来源:101教育网整理 2017-11-03 字体大小: 分享到:

  【过去分词知识点总结】

  过去分词可以:1.作定语;2.作表语;3.作宾补;4.作状语。

  过去分词作定语

  English is a widely used language.

  This is one of the schools built in 1980s.

  单个过去分词作定语,常放在被修饰词的前面;过去分词短语作定语,常放在被修饰词的后面。

  过去分词作表语

  1.用作表语的过去分词被动意味很弱,主要表示动作的完成和状态,此时相当于一个形容词。

  2.被动语态的过去分词动词意味很强,句子主语为动作的承受者,后面常跟by短语。

  ①The glass is broken.

  The glass was broken by Tom.

  ②The windows are closed.

  The windows are closed by Jack.

  3.表示“感觉流露”的一些过去分词(如:interested,surprised,excited,frightened,shocked)和一些过去分词(如dressed,drunk,devoted,lost,known)常用作表语,表示状态.其中有些仅表示状态,毫无被动意味。

  ①How did the audience receive the new play?

  They got very excited.

  ②How did Bob do in the exams this time?

  Well,his father seems pleased with his results.

  ③She was very disappointed to hear the result.

  ④He’s quite experienced in teaching beginners.

  过去分词作宾补

  1.从时间上:表动作已经完成。

  come,go,fall,change(表位移,变化的不及物动词)

  I found the countryside changed a lot.

  2.从语态上:表被动.

  I want to get my hair cut tomorrow.

  使用过去分词作宾补的情况

  1.表“希望,要求”的动词:want,wish,expect,wish,like,order+object+(to be)done

  I want the work(to be)finished by Sunday.

  Jim ordered the room(to be)cleaned.

  2.表“感觉,心理状态”的动词:see,hear,feel,watch,notice,find,think+object+p.p.

  We saw the thief caught by the police.

  People found the water polluted.

  3.使役动词

  make,get,have,keep

  I want to get my hair cut tomorrow.

  =I want to get the barber to cut my hair.

  =I want to let the barber cut my hair.

  4.在with以及without结构中做宾补:with,without+n.+p.p.

  Do you know the man with his hands tied back?

  They left without a dish touched.

  过去分词作状语

  过去分词作状语,修饰谓语,大多说明动作发生的背景或情景,表示时间、条件、原因、让步、伴随情况等。一般说来,这一结构的逻辑主语是主句的主语。

  a、表示时间

  Seen from the space,the earth looks blue.

  (=When it is seen from space,the earth looks blue.)

  b、表示条件

  Kept in refrigerator,these vegetables will remain fresh.

  (=If they are kept in refrigerator,these vegetables will remain fresh.)

  c、表示原因

  Deeply moved by the story,the children began to cry.

  (=As they were deeply moved by the story,the children began to cry.)

  d、表示伴随情况

  She walked out of the house,followed by her little daughter.

  (=She walked out of the house,and was followed by her little daughter.)

  e、表示让步

  Beaten by the enemy,he refused to let out the secret.

  (=Although he was beaten by the enemy,he refused to let out the secret.)

  【过去分词考点分析】

  1.过去分词做定语;

  2.过去分词作表语;

  3.过去分词做宾补;

  4.过去分词作状语。

  【过去分词知识点误区】

  1.过去分词的语法功能2.过去分词的翻译方法3.过去分词作表语一般翻译为:感到……的4.常见的用主动结构但是表示被动含义

  【典型例题】

  例1:___ in thought,he almost ran into the car in front of him.

  A.Losing B.Having lost C.Lost D.To lose

  答案:C

  解析:错选A。

  1.该题考查过去分词作状语的用法。动词-ing或过去分词作状语,其逻辑主语应是主句主语。

  2.“陷入深思”有两种表达法,A.lose oneself in thought B.be lost in thought按句子提供的语境可用结构B.

  例2:Cleaning women in big cities usually get ________by the hour.

  A.pay B.paying C.paid D.to pay

  答案:C

  解析:错选D

  该题考查分词作表语的用法。“to pay sb.by the hour”计时给某人报酬。此题考查get+done结构,用动词的过去分词作表语。类似的有:get burnt,get hurt,get wounded,此处的get相当于be,人作主语和pay之间构成被动关系。

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