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高中英语定于从句语法

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  高中英语语法定语从句

  在复合句中充当定语的从句叫定语从句。定语从句的作用相当于形容词,用来修饰主句中的某一名词或代词或整个主句,所以,也称作形容词性从句。被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词,定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词之后。在先行词和定语从句之间起连接作用的词叫关系词。关系词有关系代词和关系副词两种。

  提示:关系词在定语从句中有三大作用(关系词的含义无需翻译出来,what不能引导定语从句)

  1.连接作用——连接先行词和定语从句。

  I gave her all the money that I had.我把我所有的钱都给了她。

  (that连接先特词money和定语从句I had)

  2.替代作用——在定语从句中替代从句所修饰的先行词。The man who lives nest door is a famous teacher.住在隔壁的那个人是个名师。(who替代the man)

  3.成分作用——在定语从句中作主语、宾语、定语或状语。I like picrures which are painted in the traditional Chinese style.我喜欢传统的中国画。(which在定语从句中作主语)

  一、关系代词引导的定语从句引导定语从句的关系代词主要有who,whom,whose,which,that,as等。它们分别代替前面的先行词,并在定语从句中作主语、宾语或定语。

  A.who指人,在定语从句中作主语。What was the name of the man who lent you the money借钱给你的那人叫什么名字?(定语从句修饰先行词the man)He who laughs lst laughs best.谁笑到最后谁笑得最好。(定语从句修饰先行词he)The chairman of the meeting,who spoke first,sat on my right.会议主席坐在我右边,他先发言。(定语从句修饰先行词the chairman)

  B.whom指人,在定语从句中做宾语。在口语或非正式文体中,whom可省略或可用who来代替,但在介词后面以及在非限制性定语从句中只能用whom。

  There are some people(whomwho)we like and others(whomwho)we dislike.有些人我们是喜欢的,有些人则是我们讨厌的。(定语从句分别修饰先行词people,others)The people whomwho I work with are all friendly.和我一起工作的人都很友好。(定语从句修饰先行词the people)Mr Carter,whom I spoke to on the phone last night,is very interested in or plan.昨晚我在电话里和卡特先生交谈过,他对我们的计划很感兴趣。(非限制性定语从句中不能用who代替whom)Two men,neither of whom I had ever seen before,came into my office.两个人来到我的办公室,我以前从未见过他们。(在介词后面不用who)

  C.whose通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语,后面要紧跟被修饰的名词。

  There are some people whose faces you can nevr forget.有些人,他们的脸你永远难以忘怀。(定语从句修饰先行词people)

  I saw some trees whose leaves were black because of the polluted air.我看见一些树的树叶由于空气污染而发黑。(定语从句修饰行词trees)D.which 1.指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语。做宾语时常可省略。English is a language which is easy to learn.英语是一门容易学的语言。(which在定语从句中作主语,不能省略)

  This is a folk song which is now very popular.这是目前非常流行的一首民谣(which在定语从句中作主语,不能省略)

  The river which flows through London is the Thames.流经伦敦的河叫泰晤士河。(which在定语从句中作主语,不能省略)

  The children like cookies(which)my wife makes.孩子们喜欢我夫人做的饼干。(关系代词which作makes的宾语,可以省略)

  2.which引导的非限制性定语从句可以修饰前面的整个主句,相当于and this。Jim passedhis driving test,which surprised everybody.吉姆通过了驾驶考试,这使大家都感到惊讶。(定语从句修饰的是整个主句,而不是the driving test)Sheila couldn't come to the party,which was a pity.希拉不能来参加聚会,真遗憾。(定语从句修饰的是整个主句,而不是the party)

  3.which在非限制性定语从句中有时也可以作定语。John stayed here for a week,dring which time we visited the West Lake together.约翰在这里呆了一星期,在此期间我们一起游了西湖。It might snow this weekend,in which case we won't go to Beijing.周末可能下雪,在这种情况下,我们就不去北京了。

  E.that指人时,相当于who或whom;指物时,相当于which。在定语从句中作主语或宾语(做宾语时常可省略)

  。He is the man that lives next door.他就是住在隔壁的那个人。(定语从句修饰先行词the man,作主语)

  I don't like stories that have unhappy endings.我不喜欢结尾悲伤的故事。(定语从句修饰先行词stories,作主语)

  The dress(that)Ann boughtdoesn't fit her very well.安买的衣服不太合身。(定语从句修饰先行词the dress,that作宾语可省略)

  Is there anything(that)I can do for you有我能为你效劳的事吗?(定语从句修饰先行词anything,that作宾语,可省略)

  提示:在口语中,that有时还可以作关系副词,相当于when或介词+which结构。We left the day(that)he arrived.他来的那一天,我们就走了。(that替when)He doesn't see things the way(that)we see them.他看问题的方法和我们不一样。(that代替in which)Imagine the speed(that)he drives his car!很难想象,他开车的速度那么快!(that代替at which)

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