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高一英语《寒假专题 Listening Strategies》

来源:101教育网整理 2018-04-09 字体大小: 分享到:

 

   

高一

   

英语

   

北师大版

内容标题

寒假专题��

Listening Strategies

编稿老师

王普

 

本讲教育信息

. 教学内容:

寒假专题��

Listening Strategies

 

. 重点、难点

1

、新课标北师大版模块1至模块6听力策略的总结和归纳。

2

、通过练习强化对听力策略的运用。

【听力策略讲解和练习】

1. Prediction

(先行预测)

Before you listen, read the questions carefully.

Try to think of possible answers.

Use your general knowledge to help you.

★What is the relationship between the two speakers?

A. They are classmates

B. They are teacher and student.

C. They are strangers.

听力原文:

W: Hi, Mike. You look tired.

M: I worked all night and still haven”t finished my homework.

W: You worked all night? It took me only thirty minutes.

 

2. Getting prepared for listening

(做好听力准备)

Before listening, make sure you understand the task.

If possible, try to guess the answer.

When you listen the first time, don”t panic! You will not understand everything ? just try to get the general idea.

★Why did the woman say the man was lucky?

A. Because he didn”t need to finish the experiment

B. Because he didn”t attend the boring and long lecture.

C. Because the lecture was difficult to understand.

听力原文:

M: I didn”t go to professor Wood”s lecture because I had to finish my experiment. What did you think of it?

W: Well, it was boring and much longer than I had expected. So you were lucky.

 

3. Understanding the general idea

(把握大意)

Don”t worry if you can”t understand everything.

Listen for important words and phrases.

Try to link key words to topics.

Listen more than once, if possible.

★Why does the woman ride all the way to the office?

A. Because it”s good for her health

B. Because she wants to save money

C. Because the bus service has been stopped

听力原文:

M: Hi, Susan. You look stronger.

W: I have been going to the office by bike all these weeks.

M: Really? I guess you get up earlier every day.

W: Yes, it takes more time to get the office. But I am used to it and feel energetic when I work.

 

4. Listening for understanding

(理解性听力)

Before listening, read the questions.

Use your general knowledge to think of possible answers.

Listen and identify key words to help you answer the questions.

The first time you listen, try to get the general idea and take notes.

The second time you listen, listen carefully and try to note down the answers.

★What will they do tonight?

A. Play cards at home

B. Go to see the movie

C. Watch TV at home

听力原文:

M: What shall we do tonight, Jo? Watch TV or go to the movies? Let me look at the newspaper. Movie programs are usually on page8.

M: Here it is .Gone with the wind starts at 7:30 this evening.

W: It”s said to be interesting.

M: OK, let”s do it.

 

5. Self?assessment

(自我评估)

After listening, it is useful to think about how difficult the exercises were for you.

Mark the difficulty of listening texts

Mark the difficulty of tasks .

★What will the man probably do on his way home?

A. Show the woman how to finish the report

B. Help the woman with the paper.

C. Return the books to the woman

听力原文:

M: Mary, have you finished your paper?

W: Yes, I have worked on it for three weeks and read many reference books. Oh, Tom, could you do me a favor? I need someone to return these books to Peter

M: No problem. I will visit him on my way home.

 

6. Listening for specific information

(搜寻特殊信息)

Before you listen, read the questions. Try to guess possible answers. Make sure you know what

you have to do, e.g. complete a table, fill in the blank.

As you listen, make notes and use abbreviations.

Use the headings or topics from the table to help you while you are listening. While you are listening, listen for words from the questions or synonyms of them

If you miss some information, write a question mark to remind you to listen especially the second time. Don”t worry if you don”t understand everything. Concentrate on the important words.

★What is man”s office phone number?

A.64649326

B. 63326246   C. 63322646

★How many people will attend the dinner except the man and his wife?

A. Four  

B. Five   C. Six

★When does the man have to work?

A. On Monday  

B. On Saturday C. On Sunday

听力原文:

W: Good afternoon. Flower Restaurant.

M: Good afternoon. I”d like to book a table, please.

W: Certainly, sir. Your name, Please ?

M: Patrick White .

W: And your phone number please, Mr. White?

M: My office number is 63322646, and my home number is 64649326.

W: And how many people will be attending?

M: There will be six people, plus my wife and myself. Eight in all.

W: OK, and would you like a private room or is the general restaurant suitable?

M: Does the private room have a KTV?

W: No, it doesn”t

M: That” s OK. I”ll have a private room then, please.

W: And would you like to book some wine with your meal?

M: Yes, but let me see now. White wine is my favorite and I know most people like red wine. Now put me down for two bottles of red and one bottle of white wine.

W: OK. And when would you like the table for?

M: Friday is fully booked. How about the day after?

M: That”ll be fine. But it can”t be Sunday because I have to work the next day.

 

7. Preparation

(做好听力准备)

Before you listen, always look for clues that will help you understand what you are going to listen to.

Use your knowledge of the world to predict answers to the questions.

Guess the answers which you can then check when you are listening.

 

8. Focus on situations

(注重语言情境)

When you listen to dialogues, think about where they take place

Focus on the language the people use.

Think about the mood of the speakers.?

★What illness does the man suffer from?

A. A bad cold  

B. SARS     C. Lung cancer

★What caused the man”s illness?

A. Tiredness  

B. The air conditioners C. No regular exercise

★Why does the man seldom do exercise?

A. He doesn”t have time

B. He doesn”t like playing sports

C. He doesn”t realize the importance of exercise.

听力原文:

W: Good morning.

M: Good morning, doctor. I have a bad cough and a fever. I feel very tired and can”t sleep well at night.

W: And how long have you been like this?

M: Two days.

W: Let me have a look. Now, open your mouth wide and say” A…hhh”

M: A…hhh

W: Now take your shirt off please. Breathe in ? breathe out. OK, you can put your shirt back on now.

M: What seems to be the problem? Have I got SARS or lung cancer?

W: Oh, no. Don”t be so nervous. You just have a bad cold. Where do you work?

M: I work in an office, with air conditioners.

W: I think that may be the cause. It”s really not very good for your health.

M: So what should I do?

W: I advise you to go out of the office now and then. Walk around, and get some fresh air. That will help .You also need to do more exercise. Do you play any sports?

M: I sometimes do. But to be honest, I”m too busy to get regular exercise.

W: Then you be healthier.

M: OK, no problem! Thank you, doctor. Goodbye.

W: Bye.

 

9. Identifying style

(识别文体)

Informal style is more direct. Listen for contractions and colloquial or slang expressions.

Formal style usually contains longer sentences and polite words and expressions.

 

10. Identifying opinions

(鉴别观点)

Before you listen, try to imagine the people and what kind of things they might say.

While you listen, write down important words.

After you listen, look for synonyms of the words in the question.

★What is the woman doing in America?

A. She”s studying

B. She is teaching

C. She is traveling

★What does the woman think of the discussions in class?

A. They are different from those in China

B. They are difficult

C. They are useful.

★Why does the woman thank the man?

A. He has introduced some teaching methods

B. He has invited her to travel with him

C. He has given her some advice.

听力原文:

M: Hi ,Wang Ling. How are your studies going in the United States?

W: Well, exciting, but sometimes I find them very difficult. Most of the other students can understand the lectures easily, but I have to listen carefully and take lots of notes.

M: Yes, I know what you mean. Have you considered recording the lectures?

W

No, I don”t think we are allowed to.

M: Oh, it”s no problem. You just have to ask for the speaker”s permission.

W: Oh, that”s a good idea. And I haven”t got used to the teaching method. We are often asked to have discussions. You know we seldom did this in China. It”s so difficult.

M: Well, maybe it”s difficult at the beginning, but having discussions is a good way of learning. The other students have different opinions and you can learn much from them. So during a discussion, listen carefully. If there”s something you don”t understand, you can raise questions.

W: I see.

M: Anyway, don”t always worry about your studies. You can go to some places in the city to relax. W: That sounds good. I”m so glad to have a friend like you in America. Thank you very much.

 

11. Preparing your own questions

(准备你自己的问题)

Predict what topics you think will be mentioned.

Think of things you would like to know and write questions

★What is the possible relationship between two speakers?

A. classmates

B. wife and husband

C. teacher and student .

★What are they talking about?

A. How to study better

B. How to find a part-time job

C. Finding jobs

★What do we know about the man?

A. He hasn”t decided what to do

B. He will set up his own business

C. He prefers living a peaceful life

听力原文:

W: It”s difficult to find a suitable job this year, so I have great pressure.

M: Now college graduates are being encouraged to start their own business. It sounds as if it will be really good for which will be helpful to our future jobs. We also have the opportunity to get to know about society and ourselves better.

W: Yes, but it is not as easy as you think. There are a lot of problems. The main difficulty is money. And our education doesn”t provide enough knowledge on how to do it well.

M: Maybe you are right. But our government allows college graduates to borrow money from banks and maybe some can get money from their parents.

W: But you have to pay back the money sooner or later. So some college graduates, even though job-hunting is very competitive, prefer to live a peaceful life rather than start their own business. M: Oh, they don”t have dreams. But I have made up my mind. How about you?

W: Well, I always take time to consider before making a decision.

 

12. Answering multiple?choice questions

(如何回答多项选择的问题)

Before you listen, read the questions and options.

Use your own knowledge to predict the most likely answers.

Look at the options and think of possible synonyms.

The first time you listen, try to get the general idea and circle possible options.

The second time you listen, try to answer all the questions.

Even if you don”t know the answer, always guess!

 

13. Matching people and opinions

(把说话者和他们表述的意思联系起来)

Underline the “topic” words or expressions in each opinion. Then circle the important opinion words.

Decide if the opinions are positive or negative.

As you listen, identify the “topic” words or expressions and write down any opinion words you hear.

Decide if the opinion words are synonyms or opposites of the words you underlined.

Pay attention to the intonation used when agreeing and disagreeing.

★Where did the hurricane happen?

A. Austria

B. Australia C. Auckland

★What was turned over by the hurricane?

A. ship

B. bus     C. A plane

★How many people lost their homes in the hurricane?

A. Thousands of people

B. Millions of people.

C. Hundreds of people

听力原文:

On March 20,2006, a hurricane called Larry hit the northeastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The hurricane caused a total loss of more than three hundred million Australian dollars and badly damaged many banana trees.

The hurricane was reported to be the worst and most powerful hurricane that had ever hit the area, with a speed of up to 290 Km/h. The wind was so strong that the electricity supply was cut off and even a plane was turned over. Thousands of people were homeless and out of work..

 

【听力策略辅导材料】

(一)透析高考听力特点

 掌握高分应试策略

自从高考英语加试听力以来,它在整个试卷中占有举足轻重的地位。听力所占分值较高(

30分),超过了一直为广大师生所重视的书面表达(25),听力试题做得成功与否直接关系到考生的英语成绩。因此,广大考生必须认真研究分析高考英语听力试题特点及高考要求,只有明确了高考听力要求,了解了高考听力试题的题型结构和听力材料的特点,掌握了听力考试中的应试技巧,考生方能取胜听力、取胜英语、取胜高考,为进入理想的大学铺平道路。

一、听力试题特点

1.

语体、语音特点

 

作为语言运用能力的重要组成部分,高考英语听力以考查口头语言的理解为主要目的,要求考生能够听懂日常生活中的简短对话或独白。在语体方面,听力试题属于口语,它的结构不像书面语那么严谨,其句子短,重复率高,冗余信息多,诸多I”m afraid, Excuse me, why not, you see, you know, well, ah, er, I mean 之类的词语频频使用;在语音方面,有时会出现弱读、同化等现象;另外还会出现音素的省略,失去爆破等现象;这些都给听力理解造成了一定的困难。但是从整体上来说,高考英语听力的朗读发音清楚,语音清晰,语速正常。了解这些知识对听力理解是非常必要的。

2.

材料特点

 

1)语料真实

 

高考听力材料都是来自实际生活的真实语料,都是具有真实语境、真实动机、真实心态、真实人际关系和真实交际策略的实际语言活动。

 

2)话题广泛

 

这些材料涉及到实际生活中的方方面面:购物、就餐、打电话、问路、看病、邀请、询问时间、谈论天气、假日活动、买票等,其内容包含新闻报道、社会生活、教育文化、风土人情、历史地理、科普知识、人物故事等。

 

3)用词浅显,结构简单

 

听力试题中的词汇均为常用词汇,一般不会出现生僻词和超纲词,平均每句约8个单词,没有从句套从句的复杂结构句。

 

二、高考要求

 

高考英语听力一般从以下几方面考查考生对口头语言的理解能力:

1.

领略主旨大意,概括话题内容

 

这类试题在高考听力试题中约占2小题,它要求我们对听到的内容有一个整体的把握和全面的领会,抓住说话者究竟在说什么。任何一段对话或独白都是围绕一个中心展开的,有时主旨大意较明显,有时则需要归纳、概括。常见的提问方式有:

What”s the passage mainly about?

What”s the topic of the passage?

What are the two speakers doing?

What are the two speakers talking about?

What is the dialogue/conversation about?

 

为了把握所听内容的主旨要义,要从说话人的语气上体会主旨大意,抓住关键词,对语段进行整体理解。而不应纠缠在某些小细节上,这样往往会造成以偏概全。

2.

捕捉主要细节,确认具体事实

 

这类试题在高考听力试题中约占8小题。它要求我们听清、听懂与话题中心相关的具体信息,准确理解具体细节,如时间、地点、人物、价钱、数量、目的、原因、结果等。同时,还要求我们对所听到的信息进行简单的处理,比如数字运算、时间顺序、比较筛选、同义转换、因果关系等。理解具体信息有助于把握话题内容,领会说话者意图,这是听力考查的重点内容。常见的提问方式有:

Where is the woman going?

How does the man pay for the tickets?

What”s wrong with the girl?

When does the woman plan to arrive?

What”s the man”s house number?

How many hours does Tom sleep a day?

Why does the man thank the woman?

Which of the following is true?

 

细节问题一定是与整段材料的话题中心密切相关的,而不是纯粹为了追求细枝末节而设置的,这就需要在整体理解所听材料的基础上把听到的具体信息联系在一起,然后做出正确的理解与判断。

3.

推测谈话背景,辨认角色关系

 

这类试题在高考听力试题中约占5小题,要求我们从谈话或说话的话题和语气来推断出对话双方(或说话人)的职业身份,彼此之间(或与他人)的关系,对话发生的时间、地点或场合等。常见的提问方式有:

Where does this conversation take place?

Where is the woman speaking?

Where did the conversation most likely happen?

When does the dialogue take place?

Who do you think the woman probably is?

What”s the probable relationship between the speakers?

 

判断背景场合与说话者的身份对理解所听话语的真实含义是至关重要的。从某种意义上来说,对谈话或者说话发生的背景、说话者之间的关系的理解程度,也体现了我们对语篇整体输入或整体理解的能力。

4.

领会弦外之音,揣摩观点意图

 

这类试题在高考听力试题中约占5小题,它要求我们从话语中听出其中可能有的“弦外之音”,也就是揣摩说话人的意图、观点或态度等,常见的提问方式有:

What can we learn from the conversation/speakers?

What can we know /learn about the woman?

What does the man mean?

What does the speakers want to tell us?

What is the probable result of the conversation?

What”s the woman”s opinion about the man”s dress?

How does the woman think about the man”s way of working?

Which of the following words best describes the day the speaker had?

 

俗话说“听话要听音”,推测说话人的真实意图,把握了解其观点或态度是有一定难度的。这类问题常涉及到语言文化背景知识,需要我们在语言学习和听力理解训练中培养文化意识,提高自己的领悟能力。

 

三、听力应试技巧与策略

 

毫无疑问,好成绩的取得需要勤学苦练,具备扎实的语言知识功底是考好听力的前提。“梅花香自苦寒来”,只有勤学苦练方能熟能生巧。但也应认识到任何学科的考试都会有自身的规律和特点,如果我们能够根据这些规律和特点总结出一些方法和规律,并将它们应用于训练和测试中,定能收到事半功倍之效果。若要在考场上能够正常或者超常发挥,必须掌握以下几点应试策略:

1.

调整心理,稳定情绪,进入状态

 

听力测试也是对考生心理素质的检测,过于紧张焦急的情绪容易产生恐惧心理,影响听力水平的正常发挥。发试卷前最好做一做深呼吸或闭目片刻之类的放松活动,放松自己的情绪,使自己处于平静状态。树立必胜信念,心慌意乱于事无补,集中精力、临场不惧,才是明智之举。另外,听力试音的语速和音质与正式考试一致,因此,一定要听好试音,调整心态,尽早进入考试状态。

2.

快速抢读试题,积极进行预测,带着问题去听

 

高考的听力问题和选项都印在试卷上,试卷发下后,考生要充分利用听力试音时间、每小题的间隙时间以及答题剩余的时间抢读问题和选项,并根据问题和选项预测听力材料内容。根据自己的预测,带着问题有针对性地去听,不仅使你在听到问题答案时加倍注意,还有助于使你注意力集中,思想不走神,从而大大提高答题的效率和准确性。

3.

善于抓住关键词句,重视全文理解

 

捕捉信息重点是听力测试中的重要一环,不少人听力差的根本原因就是听录音时抓不住重点,只是盲目地逐字逐句地听,这样往往会产生捡了芝麻丢了西瓜的现象。听时重点要放在实词上,注意力要放在与问题相关的信息词上,像well, unfortunately, however, but 等起导向作用的词,其后的内容必须留心。听对话时,要多注意答语的内容和语气,绝大部分信息都在答语中,且往往与答题有关;听独白时要重视首句,它常常是对短文内容的概括。另外,要注意整体理解,不要把思维停留在个别没听清楚的词句上,以免影响后面内容的理解。

4.

善于跳越难点,充分利用重复信息

 

听的时候,注意力要紧跟说话人的思路,有些同学往往在碰到听不懂的单词时停下来,想弄清楚这个单词的意思后再往下听,这种方法是不正确的。听到不懂的生词或有听不清的地方是正常的事,在这种情况下,要当机立断,毫不犹豫地大胆跳过去,接着往下听。有的时候,我们可以通过上下文猜测到该单词的大意,因为一般说来,对话中的词句,尤其是重要的词语,往往会以其他形式在对话中重现,我们称之为“多余信息的重现”,考生要培养这种跳越难点,从上下文判断词意的能力。

5.

结合语境、语调,推断真实含意

 

有的对话的答语似乎是答非所问,设置的题目也不直接,这就要求我们在听录音时,必须要通过想象,置身语境,进入角色,再把所处的情景与说话的重音、语调、语气及语义的整体含义结合起来,推断说话人的真实意图。

6.

学会边听边记,防止遗忘

 

听力测试中,尤其是听短文时,听清楚或是听懂全部内容是比较难的,同时完全准确地记住全部信息也不容易,因此适当记录是有必要的,好记性还不如“烂笔头”呢。这里需强调指出的是听力测试中的“记”应是速记,而不是听写,速记时要使用自己认识的最简便的,最迅速的办法,例如,字母、缩写符号甚至中文或只有自己才能辨认的符号。

7.

眼耳并用,听读结合

 

听录音时,要养成眼耳并用的习惯,一边用耳朵听,一边用眼睛浏览各个选项,做到听与思考记忆相结合,捕捉信息与选择答案相结合,听与阅读、选择同时进行。

 

(二)

Strategies for Developing Listening Skills

Language learning depends on listening. Listening provides the aural input that serves as the basis for language acquisition and enables learners to interact in spoken communication.

Effective language instructors show students how they can adjust their listening behavior to deal with a variety of situations, types of input, and listening purposes. They help students develop a set of listening strategies and match appropriate strategies to each listening situation.

Listening Strategies

Listening strategies are techniques or activities that contribute directly to the comprehension and recall of listening input. Listening strategies can be classified by how the listener processes the input.

Top-down strategies are listener based; the listener taps into background knowledge of the topic, the situation or context, the type of text, and the language. This background knowledge activates a set of expectations that help the listener to interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next. Top-down strategies include

listening for the main idea

1. predicting

2. drawing inferences

3. summarizing

Bottom-up strategies are text based; the listener relies on the language in the message, that is, the combination of sounds, words, and grammar that creates meaning. Bottom-up strategies include

listening for specific details

1. recognizing cognates

2. recognizing word-order patterns

3. Strategic listeners also use metacognitive strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate their listening.

They plan by deciding which listening strategies will serve best in a particular situation.

They monitor their comprehension and the effectiveness of the selected strategies.

They evaluate by determining whether they have achieved their listening comprehension goals and whether the combination of listening strategies selected was an effective one.

Listening for Meaning

To extract meaning from a listening text, students need to follow four basic steps:

1. Figure out the purpose for listening. Activate background knowledge of the topic in order to predict or anticipate content and identify appropriate listening strategies.

2. Attend to the parts of the listening input that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest. This selectivity enables students to focus on specific items in the input and reduces the amount of information they have to hold in short-term memory in order to recognize it.

3. Select top-down and bottom-up strategies that are appropriate to the listening task and use them flexibly and interactively. Students” comprehension improves and their confidence increases when they use top-down and bottom-up strategies simultaneously to construct meaning.

4. Check comprehension while listening and when the listening task is over. Monitoring comprehension helps students detect inconsistencies and comprehension failures, directing them to use alternate strategies.

 

(三)

Teachers should Share these tips and techniques with students so they can build independent listening skills:

Give the speaker your full attention. Practice tuning out distractions such as looking out the window or hallway.

? Focus your mind on what the speaker is saying.

? Wait until the speaker is done before adding your thoughts.

? Listen and absorb everything being said. Wait to respond until you”ve

heard the entire message.

Listen for the main idea. It”s often stated at the beginning and/or the end of a lecture or presentation.

? Ask questions to help clarify the concept or subject.

? Smiling or nodding your head while someone speaks lets them know you”re listening and comprehending.

 

                                                           

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