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高一英语《语法:情态动词》

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高一

   

英语

   

通用版

内容标题

语法:情态动词

编稿老师

霍艺红

 

本讲主要内容

 

语法:情态动词

 

知识总结归纳

. 情态动词概述:

1.

含义:情态动词有一定的词汇意义,表示说话人对所说话语的态度和看法,或表示主观设想及其情态意义。

2.

情态动词有以下几个特征:

 

1)情态动词除ought以外,后面接不带的动词不定式。

 

2)情态动词没有不定式,没有不定式,或动词的-ing形式。

 

3)情态动词第三人称单数没有词形变化。

3.

主要的情态动词:

can, could,  may,  might, must,  ought to ,  would,  should,  need,  dare,   used to

 

. 表示能力的情态动词   can, could,  be able to

1. can , could

表示能力,通常指由体力,知识,技能等所产生的能力,也可以表示由于客观原因而形成的能力。

We can see the lake from our bedroom window.

Can you speak any foreign languages?

I”m afraid I can”t come to the party on Friday.

We can”t afford to pay the bill.

Could

can 的过去式,

When we went into the room, we could smell something burning.

She could speak three languages before she was eighteen.

2. be able to

也可以用来替代 can

Helen is able to read well even though she is only three.

I had some free time yesterday, so I was able to write a few letters.

 

如果表示特定的能力时,应该用 be able to,而不用 can/could

The fire spread through the building quickly but everybody was able to escape.

They didn”t want to come with us at first but we managed to persuade them.

 

Exercise: Fill in the blanks:

1. Sandra  __________  drive but she hasn”t got a car.

2. My grandfather was a very clever man.  He  _________________  speak five languages.

3. They didn”t want to come with us at first but we  ________  persuade them.

4. Laura had hurt her leg and  ______  walk very well.

5. A girl fell into the river but fortunately we  _______  rescue her.

6. Can you speak up a bit?  I  _______  hear you very well.

7. I used to  _________  stand on my head but I can”t do it now.

8. I looked very carefully and I  _________  see a figure in the distance.

 

. should , ought to  表示应该,有责任,义务做某事。

1. should

用来提出建议,劝告。

You look tired.  You should go to bed.

The government should do more to help homeless people.

You shouldn”t believe everything that he said.

Margaret should pass the exam.  She”s been studying very hard.

2. should

可以用来表示推测, 表示某事不太对头或象我们想象的那样:

I enjoyed her first novel, so the new one should be good.

The boys shouldn”t be playing football at this time.  They should be at school.

3. ought to

可以用来替代,表示建议,劝告,应该做某事,或推测。

 

注意:后接 do, ought to do

 

否定形式为: ought not to do,

Do you think I ought to apply for this job?

Jack ought not to go to bed so late.

She”s been studying hard for the exam, so she ought to pass.

Ought I to go?

4. should, ought to

后可以接 have done 的形式,用来表示应该做而没有做的事,意思是本应该。

It was a great party last night.  You ought to have come.

You should have asked my permission first.

I”m feeling sick.  I shouldn”t have eaten so much chocolate.

They ought to have finished the work by the end of the last week.

Exercise:

1. We don”t see you enough.  You ________

come and see us more often.

2. I”m sorry that I didn”t take your advice.  I ____________

do what you said.

3. We lost the match but we  ________________

win.  We were the better team.

4. ----Is John here yet?

--- Not yet, but he  _________  

be here soon.

5. If you smell gas, you  ___________

phone the emergency number.

6. I think you  ________________  

listen to him.  He knew what he was talking about.

 

. 表示请求得到允许, 可以使用  can, may ,

1. may

用在肯定句中表示许可,通常表示说话人给予的许可.

You may come if you wish.

You may smoke in the room.

Borrowers may not take out of the library more than two books at a time.

May I use your care for a few days?

Can I take another cup of tea?

Jim says that we can borrow his house as long as we leave it clean.

--- Can I go for a swim this afternoon, Mum?

2.

在口语中,通常用can表示说话人给予的许可,或征询听话人的许可,但在正式语体或比较客气的场合,经常用 may

3.

它们的否定形式为 may notcan not,意思为不允许,不行。

 

高考点拨】【题型展示

   1. Tom ought not to  _______  me your secret, but he meant no harm.

A. have told       B. tell        C. be telling          D. having told

 

答案:A

   2. I told Sally how to get here, but perhaps I  __________  for her.

A. had to write it out               B. must have written it out

C. should have written it out         D. ought to write it out

答案:

C

 

   3. It”s nearly seven o”clock.  Jack  ______  be here at any moment.

A. must       B. need           C. should             D. can

答案:

C

 

   4. The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone  __________  get out.

A. had to        B. would          C. could        D. was able to

 

答案:D

 

   5. Sir, you  ______  be sitting in this waiting room.  It is for women and children only.

A. oughtn”t to          B. can”t        C. won”t       D. needn”t

 

答案:A

 

   6. ----Will you stay for lunch?

---- Sorry,   ______  .  My brother is coming to see me.

A. I mustn”t      B. I can”t          C. I needn”t          D. I won”t

 

答案:B

 

   7. I was really anxious about you.  You  ______ home without a word.

A. mustn”t leave           B. shouldn”t have left

C. couldn”t have left        D. needn”t leave

 

答案:B

 

   8. Even though I”d hurt my leg, I  _____  swim back to the river first.

A. could            B. might          C. had to          D. was able to

 

答案:D

 

   9. ---I hear you”ve got a set of Australian coins.  _______ I have a look?

--- Yes, certainly.

A. Do            B. May         C. Shall          D. Should

 

答案:B

 

   10. A left-luggage office is a place where bags  _____ be left for a short time, especially at railway station.

A. should           B. can       C. must      D. will

 

答案:B

 

  11. You   ______ be cruel to animals.

A. don”t ought to               B. ought not to

C. ought to not                 D. ought

 

答案:B

 

  12. ----  _______ the cooking myself at this time?

---Yes, you  __________________.

A. Ought I do, you need                  B. Ought I not do, need

C. I ought do, must                      D. Ought I to do; ought to

 

答案:D

 

 

实战模拟

   1.  Young people  ______  learn how to use computers.

A. would        B. could        C. should         D. must

   2. You  _____ your lesson over the weekend, but you didn”t.

A. would study            B. didn”t study

C. had not studied          D. should have studied

   3. Tell him that he  ______ come to our company to work tomorrow.

A. could         B. might    C. may       D. shall

   4. When driving, we  _______ obey the traffic laws absolutely.

A. should        B. need      c. ought     D. can

   5. I hope  ______ to the party tonight.

A. able to come               B. I shall able to come

C. I shall can come            D. to be able to come

   6.. --- Are you coming to Jeff”s party?

--- I”m not sure.  I _____ go to the concert instead.

A. must             B. would        C. should      D. ,might

  7. --- Will you stay for lunch?

-- Sorry, I   ______  .  My sister is coming to see me.

A. mustn”t        B. can”t          C. needn”t       D. won”t

  8. . --- When can I come for the photos?  I need them tomorrow afternoon.

___  They  _____  be ready by  12:00.

A. can          B. should         C. might    D. need

   9. . He was a good swimmer so he  _____ swim to the river bank when the boat sank.

A. could       B. might         C. may      D. was able to

  10. --- May I speak to Miss Liu?

--- Sorry, you  _____  .  She is having a class now.

A. needn”t           B. mustn”t         C. may not             D. oughtn”t

 

【试题答案】

1. C    2. D    3. C    4. A    5. D

6. D    7. B    8. B    9. D    10. C

 

 

                                                           

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