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高一Unit 1 Cultural relics Period 5 (人教新课标)

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Unit 1 Cultural relics (人教新课标)

Period 5

Teaching & learning contents

: Discovering useful structure in Learning about language & grammar exercises in WB.

Teaching & learning goals

:

1. Get the Ss to learn and conclude the grammar item—The Restrictive and Non-restrictive Attributive by studying and analysing the clauses in the text and combing two sentences into an Attributive clause.

2. Use and consolidate the grammar items by doing the grammar exercises.

Main points

: grammar items and grammar exercises

Difficult Points

: grammar items and grammar exercises

Class type

: Grammar learning and exercises

Teaching & learning procedures:

Step 1 Revision


Task 1 Consolidate some of the words and expressions in this unit.

Task 2 Check the answers to the vocabulary exercises in WB.

Task 3 Revise the grammar items about Attributive Clause learned in Book 1.

Step 2 Discovering useful structures

Task 1 Ss skim the passage again and find out all the sentences with attributive clause. (9 sentences all together and 4 of them are Non-restrictive clauses.)

Task 2 Study the sentences and notice the use of comma, try to find out the differences between them and define non-restrictive clause.

Possible answers:

* Restrictive attributive clauses give important information to find a particular thing or person from two or more other things or people.

* Non-restrictive clauses give extra information which is interesting or useful but not essential for finding a particular thing or person. There is usually a comma before the non-restrictive clause.

A few characteristics of non-restrictive attributive clause: restrictive and non-restrictive attributive clauses are best learned by looking at the context of the sentence; “that” clauses are never non-restrictive attributive clause; non-restrictive clauses are most frequently used in written English.

Task 3 Ss read the grammar explanations and examples on Page 86-87 to get a general idea of the grammar items and find out the points that they couldn”t understand.

Analyse the following two sentences to show the differences between Restrictive and Non-restrictive Attributive Clauses.

1) She kept on telling jokes, which made everyone angry.

This sentence suggests that the fact she told jokes made them angry.

2) She kept on telling jokes which made everyone angry.

This sentence suggests that the subject of her jokes made them angry.

3) They said they loved their children, who were well-behaved.

This sentence suggests that they loved all the children and that their children were well-behaved.

4) They said they loved their children who were well-behaved.

This sentence suggests that they only loved all the children who were well-behaved.

Task 4 Learn more materials about Restrictive and Non-restrictive Attributive Clause to have a clear idea of this grammar item. Teacher explains the grammar rules as well as offers more examples with the help of grammar PPT.

Grammar explanation:限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

. 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区别

 

限制性定语从句

非限制性定语从句

形式上

不用逗号

与主句隔开。

用逗号

与主句隔开。

意义上

是先行词不可缺少的定语,如删除,主句则失去意义或意思表达不完整。

只是对先行词的补充说明,如删除,主句仍能表达完整的意思。

译法上

译成先行词的定语:

...的

通常译成主句的并列句。

关系词的使用上

A

.作宾语时可省略

A

.不可省略

B

.可用that

B

.不用that

C

.可用who 代替whom

C

.不可用who 代替whom



.非限制性定语从句举例

His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him.


他妈妈十分地爱他,对他要求很严格。

China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful.

中国是

1949年成立的, 现在正变得越来越强大。

Last summer I visited the People”s Great Hall, in which many important meetings are held every year.  

去年夏天,我参观了人民大会堂,在那儿每年都要举行许多重要会议。


. 注意区分下列几组句子的不同含义:

1. Her brother who is now a soldier always encourages her to go to college.


她那当兵的哥哥总是鼓励她上大学。(意含: 她还有其他哥哥。)

Her brother, who is now a soldier, always encourages her to go to college.


她哥哥是当兵的,他总是鼓励她上大学。(意含: 她只有一个哥哥。)

2. All the books that have pictures in them are well written.


所有里面带插图的书都写得很好。(意含: 不带插图的书则不一定写得好。)

All the books, which have pictures in them, are well written.


所有的书都带插图,这些书都写得很好。(意含: 没有不带插图的书。)


. 关系代词aswhich 引导的定语从句

as

which 引导非限制性定语从句时, 其用法有相同之处,也有不同之处。

1. as

which都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语,代表前面整个句子。如:

He married her, as / which was natural.  

他跟她结婚了,这是很自然的事。

He is honest, as / which we can see.  

他很诚实, 这一点我们看得出来。

2. as

引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、主句之后,甚至还可以分割主句。 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只可放在主句之后。另外,as 常常有“正如、正像”的含义。如:

As is known to all, China is a developing country.  

众所周知,中国是发展中国家。

He is from the south, as we can know from his accent.


他是南方人,这一点我们从他的口音可以知道。

John, as you know, is a famous writer.  

正如你所知, 约翰是个著名作家。

Zhang Hua has been to Paris more than ten times, which I don”t believe.

张华已去过巴黎十多次了,这一点我不相信。

注意:当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时,关系词往往只用

which。如:

Tom was late for school again and again, which made his teacher very angry.

汤姆老是迟到,这使得老师很恼火。

These tables are made of metal, which made them very heavy.

这些桌子是金属的,这使得这些桌子很重。

3.

当先行词受such, the same 修饰时,关系词常用as 如:

I”ve never heard such stories as he tells.  

我从未听过象他讲的这样的故事。

He is not such a fool as he looks.  

他可不象他看上去的那样傻。

This is the same dictionary as I lost last week.  

这部词典跟我上星期丢失的一样。

注意:当先行词受

the same 修饰时,偶尔也用 that引导定语从句,但与as引导的定语从句意思有区别。如:

She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary”s wedding.

她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上穿过的同一条连衣裙。

She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore.

她穿着跟她妹妹所穿的一样的连衣裙。


.the way为先行词的限制性定语从句通常由in whichthat引导,而且通常可以省略。

The way (that / in which ) he answered the questions was surprising.

他回答这些问题的方式令人惊奇。

I don”t like the way (that / in which) you laugh at her.

我不喜欢你冲她的样子。 


. 关系代词与关系副词的选择 (Optional)


用关系代词还是关系副词引导定语从句主要看关系词在定语从句中的作用(即所担当的成分)。试比较:

I know a place where we can have a picnic.      

我知道一个我们可以野炊的地方。

I know a place which / that is famous for its beautiful natural scenery.

我知道一个以自然景色优美而闻名的地方。

I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together.

我永远忘不了我们一起度假的日子。

I will never forget the days that / which we spent together.

我永远忘不了我们一起度过的日子。

This is the reason why he was dismissed.  

这就是他被解雇的原因。

This is the reason that / which he explained to me for his not attending the meeting.

这就是他向我解释的他没有参加会议的原因。


. 定语从句与同位语从句的区别 (Optional)

1.

定语从句修饰限定先行词,它与先行词是修饰关系;同位语从句说明先行词的具体内容,它与先行词是同位关系。

The plane that has just taken off is for Paris.  

(定语从句)    

刚刚起飞的那架飞机是开往巴黎的。

The fact that he has already died is quite clear.  

(同位语从句)

他已经去世了,这个事实很明了。

2.

定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导,关系词在从句中担当相应的句子成分,关系代词在从句中作宾语时经常可省略。同位语从句主要由连词that 引导,在从句中一般不担当成分;有时也由where, when, how, who, whether, what 等连词引导,这些连词则在从句中担当成分。

The news that he told me is true.  

(定语从句)         他告诉我的消息是真的。

The news that he has just died is true.  

(同位语从句) 他刚刚去世了,这个消息是真的。

The problem that we are facing now is how we can collect so much money.  (

定语从句)


我们现在面临的问题是如何筹集这么多资金。

The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve.

(同位语从句)  


我们如何筹集这么多资金,这个问题很难解决。

The question that he raised puzzled all of us.  

(定语从句)    

他提出的问题让我们很为难。

The question whether he is sure to win the game is hard to answer.

(同位语从句)  

他是否一定会赢得那场比赛,这个问题很难回答。

3.

同位语从句与先行词一般可以用动词be发展成一个完整的句子, 而定语从句则不能。

The idea that he we could ask the teacher for advice is wonderful.  

(同位语从句)    

我们可以向老师请教,这个主意不错。

The idea was that we could ask the teacher for advice.

The fact that the earth moves around the sun is known to all.  

(同位语从句)    

地球围绕太阳转,这个事实人人皆知。

The fact is that the earth moves around the sun.

Pay attention to the problem how we can protect the wild animals.

(同位语从句)


请注意如何保护野生动物这个问题。

The problem is how we can protect the wild animals.

Task 5 Do the grammar exercises in TB to check the Ss” understanding and consolidate the grammar.

Answers to Exercise 3:

1. Here are the farmers who discovered the underground city last month.

2. Hangzhou is a famous city in China, where many people come to buy tea.

3. I don”t know the reason why she got so angry.

4. You are talking to the old man who saw some Germans taking part the Amber Room and removing it./ The old man, who you are talking to, saw some Germans taking part the Amber Room and removing it.

5. The woman remembered the day when she saw Nazis burying something near the home.

6. St Petersburg is a very beautiful city, which was once called Leningrad./ St Petersburg, which was once called Leningrad, is a very beautiful city.

7. I remember the soldiers who told me not to tell anyone what I had seen.

8. The soldiers moved the box to a mine, where they wanted to hide them.

9. Xi”an is one of the few cities whose city walls remain as good as before.

10. Shaanxi Province is a place whose/ where cultural relics are well looked after.

Answers to Exercise 4 may be varied. ( To Teacher”s Book P 17-18 for reference)

New words:

1) apart adv.

分享地;分开地 take apart 拆开

2) painting n.

绘画;画 paint n.油漆, 颜料, 涂料v. 油漆, (用颜料等),

3) castle n.

城堡

Step 4 Grammar exercise in WB

Task  Do the Grammar exercises in WB if time permits.

Homework

:

1. Read more about the Attributive Clause to have a full perspective of the grammar item.

2. Do the rest grammar exercise in WB and TB.


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Unit 1 Cultural relics Period 5 (人教新课标)

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